biopsychology: neurons and synaptic transmission

Daisy  U
Mind Map by Daisy U, updated more than 1 year ago
Daisy  U
Created by Daisy U over 4 years ago
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AS - Level psychology (chapter 4 - approaches in psychology ) Mind Map on biopsychology: neurons and synaptic transmission, created by Daisy U on 04/23/2016.

Resource summary

biopsychology: neurons and synaptic transmission
1 basics
1.1 the structure and function of neurons
1.1.1 100 billion neurons in the human nervous system
1.1.1.1 80% are in the brain
1.1.1.1.1 transmit signals electrically and chemically
1.1.1.1.1.1 communicate
1.2 types of neuron
1.2.1 3 types
1.2.1.1 motor neurons
1.2.1.2 sensory neurons
1.2.1.3 relay neurons
1.3 the structure of a neuron
1.3.1 different sizes (mm - metre)
1.3.1.1 structure
1.3.1.1.1 cell body
1.3.1.1.1.1 includes the nucleus
1.3.1.1.1.1.1 contains the genetic material
1.3.1.1.2 dendrites
1.3.1.1.2.1 attached to the cell body
1.3.1.1.2.1.1 carry nerve impulses from neighbouring neurons towards the cell
1.3.1.1.3 axon
1.3.1.1.3.1 carries impulse away from the cell body
1.3.1.1.3.1.1 down the length of the neuron
1.3.1.1.3.1.1.1 covered in a fatty layer (myelin sheath)
1.3.1.1.3.1.1.1.1 protects it and speeds up transmission
1.3.1.1.4 nodes of ranvier
1.3.1.1.4.1 myelin sheath split up to make impulses quicker
1.3.1.1.4.1.1 these are called nodes of ranvier
1.3.1.1.5 terminal buttons
1.3.1.1.5.1 end of the axon
1.3.1.1.5.1.1 speed up transmission forcing it to jump across the gaps along the axon
1.4 electric transmission - the firing of a neuron
1.4.1 when neuron in resting state the inside is negatively charged compared to the outside
1.4.1.1 when it is activated by a stimulus the inside becomes positively charged
1.4.1.1.1 causing an action potential
1.4.1.1.1.1 creates electrical impulses that travel down the axon
2 synaptic transmission
2.1 chemical transmission - synapses
2.1.1 neurons communicate within groups called neural networks
2.1.1.1 each neuron separated by a gap called a synapse
2.1.1.1.1 signals within neurons transmitted electrically
2.1.1.1.1.1 outside chemically (along the synapse)
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 when the electrical impulses reach the end of the neuron (presynaptic terminal) it triggers the release of neurotransmitters fro sacs called synaptic vesicles
2.2 neurotransmitter
2.2.1 chemicals that diffuse across the synapse to the next neuron
2.2.1.1 when a neurotransmitter crosses the synapse it reaches the post synaptic gap
2.2.1.1.1 the dendrite of the next neuron
2.2.1.1.1.1 the chemical message changes to electrical and carries on
2.2.1.1.1.1.1 several types of neurotransmitters are in the brain, spinal cord and some glands
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 has its own structure that fits perfectly into the post synaptic receptor site
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 all have special functions
2.3 excitation and inhibition
2.3.1 neurotransmitters have either an excitatory or inhibitory effect
2.3.1.1 serotonin causes inhibition resulting in he neuron becoming negatively charged so less likely to fire
2.3.1.1.1 adrenaline causes excitation makes it positively charged so more likely to fire
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