OCR 21st Century C7.1,3

Pritesh Patel
Mind Map by Pritesh Patel, updated more than 1 year ago
Pritesh Patel
Created by Pritesh Patel over 5 years ago
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Description

GCSE Chemistry Mind Map on OCR 21st Century C7.1,3, created by Pritesh Patel on 04/23/2016.

Resource summary

OCR 21st Century C7.1,3
  1. Green Chemistry
    1. The Chemical Industry
      1. 'Bulk' chemcials are chemicals produced on a large scale.
        1. Examples include: ammonia, sulfuric acid, sodium hydroxide, phosphoric acid
        2. 'Fine' chemicals are chemicals produced on a smaller scale
          1. Examples include: drugs, food additives and fragrances
          2. Development of new products
            1. requires an extensive programme of research and development e.g. catalyst
              1. testing using trial and error
                1. Making computer models of the reaction to find the most suitable catalyst
                  1. Designing or refining the manufacture of the catalyst to make sure it can be made safely, efficiently, and cost effectively
                    1. Investigating risks to minimise them
                      1. Monitoring the quality of the product so that it isn't affected by the catalyst
            2. Government Regulation
              1. governments have strict regulations to control chemical processes. This is done to protect the workers, the general public and the environment.
                1. Using Chemicals-e.g. sulphuric acid is sprayed on potato fields to destroy the leaves and stalks. Regulations restrict the amount of acid used and require signs to be displayed
                  1. Storage- many dangerous chemicals need to be stored in locked rooms. Some poisonous chemicals need to be stored in sealed containers or well ventilated rooms
                    1. Transport- lorries must display hazard symbols and ID numbers to help the emergency services deal with accidents and spills.
            3. Production of useful chemicals
              1. 1. Preparation of feedstocks- raw materials (crude oil) need to be purified or changed in some way to make the feedstock. Feedstocks are the actual reactants
                1. 2. Syntheis- Feedstocks-->Products. The conditions have to be controlled to make sure the reaction happens and a sensible rate
                  1. 3.separation of products- by products and unreacyed reactants need to be separated
                    1. 4.handling of by-products and wastes- by-products can be sold or used in another reaction. If the reaction is exothermic, waste heat can be used again (e.g. steam) saving money and energy. Waste products must be carefully disposed of so they don't harm the environment (have gov. regulations in place)
                      1. 5. monitoring the purity- Impurities sometimes remain.Different industries require different levels of purity depending on what the product is to be used for. Money can be saved by not purifying a product if it's unnecessary.
              2. Sustainability
                1. Sustainability refers to meeting the needs of todays population without affecting the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Lost of factors affect whether a process is sustainable.
                  1. 1. whether or not the feedstock is renewable- crude oil is the main source of chemical feedstocks. Reducing our reliance on them and finding alternatives would make the industry sustainable
                    1. 2.the atom economy- This tells you how much of the reactants become useful products. Reactions with low atom economy, use up resources very quickly too
                      1. 3.the nature and amount of by-products or wastes and what happens to them- Some waste products can take up space, cause pollution and damage the environemnt. Alternatuively we could find uses for watse products or use reactions with useful by-products
                        1. 4.the energy inputs or outputs- A reaction that requires a lot of energy is expensive and this is usually provided by burning fossil fuels. Exothermic reactions produce heat which could be used for something else
                          1. 5.the environmental impact- some products could harm the environment. Also the mining of raw materials can cause serious damage to the surroundings
                            1. 6.the health and safety risks- Some reactions can be dangerous and laws are in place to protect workers
                              1. 7.the social and economic benefits- A factory creates jobs for the-the community and brings money into the local economy
                2. Activation Energy- the minimum amount of energy needed for bonds to break and a reaction to start
                  1. Catalysts lower the activation energy needed for bonds to break and begin a reaction by offering an alternate pathway for the reaction
                    1. Enzyme catalysts operature within a certain temperature range otherwise they are denatured and no longer work. Each enzyme also works at a certain pH range. This limits the conditions that can be used
                  2. Energy Change
                    1. Endothermic- More energy is required for the breaking of old bonds than is released in the formation of new ones. Therefore, energy is absorbed from the surroundings. e.g. photosynthesis
                      1. Exothermic- More energy is released in the formation of new bonds than is required in the breaking of old one. Therefore, energy is released into the surroundings. E.g. combustion or neutralisation
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