Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961)
Bandura, Ross and Ross.
From Stanford University Nursery School
1.1 72 children between
37 and 69 months of
36 girls, 36 boys.
Average age mean of 57 months.
1.1.1 Condition 1 - 24 children
behaviour in models
220.127.116.11 6 boys with a
18.104.22.168 6 boys with a
22.214.171.124 6 girls with a
126.96.36.199 6 girls with a
1.1.2 Condition 3 - 24 children
observed non-aggressive model
12 boys and 12 girls.
188.8.131.52 6 boys with a same-sex model
184.108.40.206 6 boys with an opposite-sex model
220.127.116.11 6 girls with a same-sex model
18.104.22.168 6 girls with an opposite sex-model
1.1.3 Condition 2 - 24
22.214.171.124 6 boys with a
126.96.36.199 6 girls with a same
188.8.131.52 6 girls with a
184.108.40.206 6 boys with a
2.1 To demonstrate if children were
passive witnesses to an aggressive
display by an adult, they would
imitate this aggressive behaviour
when given the opportunity.
The four prediction Bandura, Ross and Ross made.
220.127.116.11 1) Children exposed to aggressive
models will produce aggressive acts
resembling those of the models.
18.104.22.168 2) Children exposed to non-aggressive acts
will produce less aggressive behaviour.
22.214.171.124 3) Children will imitate a model of the same
sex to a greater degree than the opposite sex.
126.96.36.199 4) Boys will be more predisposed than
girls in intimating aggressive behaviour.
3.1 Imitated behaviour for the non-agresive
group was very low - 70% did not react
with aggressive behaviour.
3.1.1 Children in the non-aggressive group spent
more time playing with toys (doll for example)
as well as spending more time doing nothing.
3.2 The children in aggressive conditions displayed
a vast amounts of aggressive behaviour in
comparison to the non-aggressive group.
3.2.1 Girls were more eggressive after
viewing a female aggressive model.
3.2.2 Boys were more aggressive after
viewing a male aggressive model.
3.3 Type of Data
3.4 Boys imitated more aggressive acts than girls but there was little
difference with verbal aggression between the two genders.
3.5 Boys are more likely to imitate same-sex models than girls - the
evidence of girls imitating the aggression was less strong than the boys.
4.1 Bandura was a social learning theorist who was
interested specifically in the way humans learn the
rules of social behaviour - Imitation in particular.
4.2 In order to demonstrate the
power of social learning theory,
Bandura developed a study to
explore whether children would
imitate the action of models
given the opportunity.
5.1 Laboratory experiment
5.2 Mainly an independant measures
design but matched pairs design
was used to rate the children on
their natural agression before the
experiment by the nursery teacher.
6.1 Nature VS Nurture
6.1.1 This study helps
give evidence for
the nurture side.
7.1 Phase 1: Model
7.1.1 Children are taken one at a time for 10
minutes into a room. The role model (if there
is one) was in the room performing their
chosen action to the Bobo doll.
7.2 Phase 2: Aggressive arousal
7.2.1 To see their reactions after having seen the model, the
children were provoked. This was done by the experimenter
telling them they could play with some toys but leave them
after two minutes so over children could play with them.
188.8.131.52 The toys were
7.3 Phase 3: Observation
7.3.1 Two observers coded the childrens behaviour
based upon imitated behaviour and spontaneous
agressive behaviour - including verbal agression.
8.1 Learning can take place by observation and children
have a higher chance of learning from same
sex-models opposed to an opposite-sex model.
This study provides evidence that new behaviour can be learnt through observation, not only in the result of rewarding and punishment.
8.1.1 There is some evidence indicate that boys are more likely
to imitate aggressive behaviour from a male model than a
girl imitating a female model but this is not conclusive.
8.2 There is also mulyiple pieces of evidence which suggest that boys are overall more
physically agressive than boys which was interperated as being a result of westerm
society considering physical aggression to be masculine behaviour. The more
aggressive ones behaviour is, th more masculine society will view them.
8.2.1 In a nut shell - Boys are more comportable displaying physical
means of aggression where as girls opt for verbal aggression.
9.1 Now we know that children can learn behaviours
by observing those around them, parental or
authoritarian figures in particular, we know to
monitor how we act around children so we do not
give them negative behaviour to imitate.
10.1 High Levels
The groups were broke down into sub-groups - in which the model produced exactly the same behaviour for each child.
72 children overall is a decent sized sample.
Easy to analyse and allows for straight foward analysis to be made.
Easy to replicate.
Children are likely to see aggressive models in their every-day life.
Suggest the observer had a similar understanding of the aggressive acts recorded.
Some children were upset and distressed by the models aggressive behaviour.
There was no reference made to whether or not the researchers had parental consent for the children to take part in the study.
11.2 Ecological Validity
In the experiment the child participant was constantly with an adult researcher that they did not know, normally the child would be with another child.
The participants do not know the model showing aggression but if they see an aggressive role model in their every day life it may have afftected the results.
11.3 Control Group
There is little information on the results of the control group.
The sample for each sub group is 6 which means it is not enough to generalise.
11.5 Matched Pairs Design
The pre-existing aggression rating given to the children may be innacurate causing the later results of imitated aggression to also be innacurate making the study less valid.
12.1 (DV) Dependent Variable
12.1.1 Amount of observed imitated behaviour.
Imitative agression/non-agression (directly
folllowing the model's behaviour).
184.108.40.206 a) Non-imitative aggrssion
Being aggrissive by their own creativity.
220.127.116.11 b) Physical and verbal aggression which was recorded.