Developmental Psychology- Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961)

Robyn Chamberlain
Mind Map by Robyn Chamberlain , updated more than 1 year ago
Robyn Chamberlain
Created by Robyn Chamberlain over 6 years ago
344
21

Description

A-Level Psychology (AS - 15 Core Studies (OCR)) Mind Map on Developmental Psychology- Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961), created by Robyn Chamberlain on 02/04/2014.

Resource summary

Developmental Psychology- Bandura, Ross and Ross (1961)

Annotations:

  • Bandura, Ross and Ross.
1 Participants

Annotations:

  • From Stanford University Nursery School
1.1 72 children between 37 and 69 months of age.

Annotations:

  • 36 girls, 36 boys. Average age mean of 57 months.
1.1.1 Condition 1 - 24 children observe agressive behaviour in models
1.1.1.1 6 boys with a same-sex model
1.1.1.2 6 boys with a opposite-sex model
1.1.1.3 6 girls with a same-sex model
1.1.1.4 6 girls with a opposite-sex model
1.1.2 Condition 3 - 24 children observed non-aggressive model

Annotations:

  • 12 boys and 12 girls.
1.1.2.1 6 boys with a same-sex model
1.1.2.2 6 boys with an opposite-sex model
1.1.2.3 6 girls with a same-sex model
1.1.2.4 6 girls with an opposite sex-model
1.1.3 Condition 2 - 24 Children observed non-agressive models
1.1.3.1 6 boys with a same-sex model
1.1.3.2 6 girls with a same sex model
1.1.3.3 6 girls with a opposite-sex model
1.1.3.4 6 boys with a oppoite-sex model
1.2 Sample
1.2.1 Opportunistic
2 Aim
2.1 To demonstrate if children were passive witnesses to an aggressive display by an adult, they would imitate this aggressive behaviour when given the opportunity.
2.1.1 Hypothese

Annotations:

  • The four prediction Bandura, Ross and Ross made.
2.1.1.1 1) Children exposed to aggressive models will produce aggressive acts resembling those of the models.
2.1.1.2 2) Children exposed to non-aggressive acts will produce less aggressive behaviour.
2.1.1.3 3) Children will imitate a model of the same sex to a greater degree than the opposite sex.
2.1.1.4 4) Boys will be more predisposed than girls in intimating aggressive behaviour.
3 Findings
3.1 Imitated behaviour for the non-agresive group was very low - 70% did not react with aggressive behaviour.
3.1.1 Children in the non-aggressive group spent more time playing with toys (doll for example) as well as spending more time doing nothing.
3.2 The children in aggressive conditions displayed a vast amounts of aggressive behaviour in comparison to the non-aggressive group.
3.2.1 Girls were more eggressive after viewing a female aggressive model.
3.2.2 Boys were more aggressive after viewing a male aggressive model.
3.3 Type of Data
3.4 Boys imitated more aggressive acts than girls but there was little difference with verbal aggression between the two genders.
3.5 Boys are more likely to imitate same-sex models than girls - the evidence of girls imitating the aggression was less strong than the boys.
4 Background
4.1 Bandura was a social learning theorist who was interested specifically in the way humans learn the rules of social behaviour - Imitation in particular.
4.2 In order to demonstrate the power of social learning theory, Bandura developed a study to explore whether children would imitate the action of models given the opportunity.
5 Method
5.1 Laboratory experiment
5.2 Mainly an independant measures design but matched pairs design was used to rate the children on their natural agression before the experiment by the nursery teacher.
6 Arguments
6.1 Nature VS Nurture
6.1.1 This study helps give evidence for the nurture side.
7 Procedure
7.1 Phase 1: Model
7.1.1 Children are taken one at a time for 10 minutes into a room. The role model (if there is one) was in the room performing their chosen action to the Bobo doll.
7.2 Phase 2: Aggressive arousal
7.2.1 To see their reactions after having seen the model, the children were provoked. This was done by the experimenter telling them they could play with some toys but leave them after two minutes so over children could play with them.
7.2.1.1 The toys were especially nice and new.
7.3 Phase 3: Observation
7.3.1 Two observers coded the childrens behaviour based upon imitated behaviour and spontaneous agressive behaviour - including verbal agression.
8 Conclusions
8.1 Learning can take place by observation and children have a higher chance of learning from same sex-models opposed to an opposite-sex model.

Annotations:

  • This study provides evidence that new behaviour can be learnt through observation, not only in the result of rewarding and punishment.
8.1.1 There is some evidence indicate that boys are more likely to imitate aggressive behaviour from a male model than a girl imitating a female model but this is not conclusive.
8.2 There is also mulyiple pieces of evidence which suggest that boys are overall more physically agressive than boys which was interperated as being a result of westerm society considering physical aggression to be masculine behaviour. The more aggressive ones behaviour is, th more masculine society will view them.
8.2.1 In a nut shell - Boys are more comportable displaying physical means of aggression where as girls opt for verbal aggression.
9 Usefulness
9.1 Now we know that children can learn behaviours by observing those around them, parental or authoritarian figures in particular, we know to monitor how we act around children so we do not give them negative behaviour to imitate.
10 Strengths
10.1 High Levels of Control

Annotations:

  •  The groups were broke down into sub-groups - in which the model produced exactly the same behaviour for each child.
10.2 Sample

Annotations:

  • 72 children overall is a decent sized sample.
10.3 Quantitative Data

Annotations:

  • Easy to analyse and allows for straight foward analysis to be made.
10.4 Reliability

Annotations:

  • Easy to replicate.
10.5 Practical Applications

Annotations:

  • Children are likely to see aggressive models in their every-day life.
10.6 High Inter-rater reliability

Annotations:

  • Suggest the observer had a similar understanding of the aggressive acts recorded.
11 Weaknesses
11.1 Unethical

Annotations:

  • Some children were upset and distressed by the models aggressive behaviour.
  • There was no reference made to whether or not the researchers had parental consent for the children to take part in the study.
11.2 Ecological Validity

Annotations:

  • In the experiment the child participant was constantly with an adult researcher that they did not know, normally the child would be with another child.
  • The participants do not know the model showing aggression but if they see an aggressive role model in their every day life it may have afftected the results.
11.3 Control Group

Annotations:

  • There is little information on the results of the control group.
11.4 Generalisability

Annotations:

  • The sample for each sub group is 6 which means it is not enough to generalise.
11.5 Matched Pairs Design

Annotations:

  • The pre-existing aggression rating given to the children may be innacurate causing the later results of imitated aggression to also be innacurate making the study less valid.
12 Variables
12.1 (DV) Dependent Variable
12.1.1 Amount of observed imitated behaviour. Imitative agression/non-agression (directly folllowing the model's behaviour).
12.1.1.1 a) Non-imitative aggrssion

Annotations:

  • Being aggrissive by their own creativity.
12.1.1.2 b) Physical and verbal aggression which was recorded.
12.2 (IV) Independant Variables
12.2.1 Agressive or non-agressive behaviour
12.2.2 Same/opposite sex role model
12.2.3 Gender

Annotations:

  • Of the child observing the model.
Show full summary Hide full summary

Similar

Bowlby's Theory of Attachment
Jessica Phillips
Milgram (1963) Behavioural study of Obediance
yesiamanowl
Asch Study and Variations
littlestephie
Evaluation of Conformity
littlestephie
Psychology subject map
Jake Pickup
The working memory model
Lada Zhdanova
Psychology A1
Ellie Hughes
History of Psychology
mia.rigby
Camera Angles
saradevine97
Biological Psychology - Stress
Gurdev Manchanda
Carbohydrates
Jubby