INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY (Part 2)

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immunology

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INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY (Part 2)
  1. Development of T and B cells
    1. Lymphocytes
      1. COLONEL DELETION occurs to eliminate lymphocytes
      2. Antigen-independent maturation
        1. T cells : Thymus
          1. B cells : Bone marrow
          2. Surface Markers or Receptors
            1. Bind to receptors on other cells
              1. Bind to antigens
                1. Transmit and receives messages
                2. Common receptor molecuules
                  1. MHC
                    1. CD
                      1. Antigen-specific receptors
                    2. Presentation of Antigens
                      1. substances that can provoke immune response
                        1. many EPITOPES
                          1. determine by SIZE, COMPLEXITY & FOREIGNNESS
                            1. presented by APCs
                              1. Macrophages
                                1. Dendritic cells
                                  1. B cells
                                  2. T cells : TCR
                                    1. supported by CD4 or CD8
                                    2. B cells : Immunoglobulins or Antibodies
                                      1. IgG, IgA, IgM, IgE, IgD
                                    3. T - cell Response
                                      1. Subtypes of T helper cells
                                        1. stimulate or activate other cells
                                        2. Memory
                                          1. immmunological memory
                                          2. Regulatory
                                            1. prevent excessive inflammation & autoimmunity
                                            2. Cytotoxic
                                              1. infected host cells
                                                1. cancerous host cells
                                                  1. Foreign cells
                                                2. B - cell Response
                                                  1. SOMETIMES, can be activated by T helper : T independent activation
                                                    1. MOST OF THE TIME, require activation of T helper cells
                                                      1. Memory
                                                        1. store immunological memory
                                                        2. Antibodies
                                                          1. Neutralisation
                                                            1. Opsonisation
                                                              1. Agglutination
                                                                1. Antitoxin action
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