Psychological research and scientific method

Nicky Barton
Mind Map by Nicky Barton, updated more than 1 year ago
Nicky Barton
Created by Nicky Barton about 7 years ago
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Degree Psychology Mind Map on Psychological research and scientific method, created by Nicky Barton on 04/22/2013.
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Psychological research and scientific method
1 Application of scientific method
1.1 Features of science
1.1.1 objectivity
1.1.1.1 Observable?
1.1.1.2 Measurable?
1.1.2 Replicable?
1.1.3 Allport
1.1.3.1 Understand
1.1.3.2 Predict
1.1.3.3 Control
1.1.4 Parsimoniosity
1.1.5 Predictions/Hypothesis
1.1.5.1 Popper
1.1.5.1.1 Falsifiable?
1.1.5.2 Ethical issues
1.1.5.2.1 Control
1.1.6 Kuhn
1.1.6.1 Paradigm
1.1.6.1.1 Assumptions
1.1.6.1.2 Methods
1.1.6.1.3 Terminology
1.1.6.1.4 Paradigm shift
1.1.6.1.4.1 Due to contradictions
1.1.6.2 Stages in development of a science
1.1.6.2.1 Revolutionary science
1.1.6.2.2 Normal science
1.1.6.2.3 Pre-science
1.1.6.2.4 Feyerabend
1.1.7 Scientific procedure
1.2 Validating new knowledge
1.2.1 Peer review
1.2.1.1 Research method
1.2.1.2 controls
1.2.1.3 procedure
1.2.1.4 Data
1.2.1.4.1 Reporting
1.2.1.5 Interpretation
1.2.2 Replication
1.2.2.1 To check reliability
2 Designing psychological investigations
2.1 Methods
2.1.1 Experimental method
2.1.1.1 variables
2.1.1.1.1 dependent
2.1.1.1.2 Independent
2.1.1.1.2.1 Conditions
2.1.1.1.3 operationalised
2.1.1.2 Random Allocation
2.1.1.3 Cause and effect
2.1.1.3.1 Confounding variables
2.1.2 Types of experiment
2.1.2.1 natural
2.1.2.1.1 Williams
2.1.2.2 Labratory
2.1.2.3 field
2.1.2.4 quasi-experiment
2.1.3 Design
2.1.3.1 independent groups
2.1.3.2 Repeated measures
2.1.3.3 Matched pairs
2.1.4 Correlational analysis
2.1.4.1 Curveliniar relationships
2.1.4.2 Co-variables
2.1.5 Observational studies
2.1.5.1 Sampling
2.1.5.1.1 Time
2.1.5.1.2 Event
2.1.5.2 Participant observation
2.1.5.3 Non-participant observation
2.1.5.4 Naturalistic observation
2.1.5.5 Problems
2.1.5.5.1 Observer effect
2.1.5.5.2 observer bias
2.1.5.5.3 Inter-observer reliability
2.1.5.5.4 Replication
2.1.5.5.4.1 Generalisation
2.1.6 Data collection
2.1.6.1 Questionnairs
2.1.6.2 Interviews
2.1.6.3 Case studies
2.1.7 Pilot studies
2.2 Sampling
2.2.1 Random sampling
2.2.2 Systematic sampling
2.2.3 Oportunity Sampling
2.2.4 Self-selecting sample
2.2.5 Quota-sampling
2.2.6 Issues
2.2.6.1 Representativeness
2.2.6.2 Sampling errors
2.2.7 To find target poputation
2.3 Reliability
2.3.1 Consistency
2.3.2 Test-retest reliability
2.3.3 Split half reliability
2.3.4 Inter rater reliability
2.3.5 Inter-observer reliability
2.4 Validity
2.4.1 Ecological Validity
2.4.2 External Validity
2.4.3 Internal validity
2.4.4 Two overall types
2.4.4.1 content-related
2.4.4.1.1 face validity
2.4.4.1.2 construct validity
2.4.4.1.2.1 EPI
2.4.4.2 criterion-related
2.4.4.2.1 Predictive validity
2.4.4.2.2 Concurrent validity
2.5 Ethical considerations
2.5.1 BPS
2.5.2 Fully informed consent
2.5.3 Deception
2.5.4 Debriefing
2.5.5 Right to withdraw
2.5.6 Confidentiality
2.5.7 Ethics comittee
2.5.8 Involuntary participation
3 Data Analysis and Reporting research
3.1 graphical representations
3.1.1 Bar charts
3.1.1.1 means
3.1.1.2 Medians
3.1.2 Histograms
3.1.3 Frequency polygons
3.1.4 Scattergraphs
3.2 Probability and significance
3.2.1 Hypothesis
3.2.1.1 Research
3.2.1.2 Null
3.2.2 Errors
3.2.2.1 Type 1
3.2.2.2 Type 2
3.3 Analysing quantitative data
3.3.1 Inferential Statistics
3.3.1.1 Parametric tests
3.3.1.2 Non-parametric tests
3.3.2 Types of data
3.3.2.1 Nominal
3.3.2.2 ordinal
3.3.3 Levels of measurement
3.3.4 Tests
3.3.4.1 Chi-squared
3.3.4.2 Mann-Whitney U
3.3.4.3 Wilcoxon signed ranks
3.3.4.4 Spearmans rho
3.4 Analysing qualitative data
3.4.1 Thematic analysis
3.4.2 Categories
3.4.2.1 Graphical techniques
3.5 Conventions of reporting
3.5.1 Quantitative research
3.5.1.1 Title
3.5.1.2 Abstract
3.5.1.3 Introduction
3.5.1.4 Method
3.5.1.4.1 Design
3.5.1.4.2 Participants
3.5.1.4.3 Materials/aparatus
3.5.1.4.4 Procedure
3.5.1.5 Results
3.5.1.6 Discussion
3.5.1.7 References
3.5.1.8 Apendices
3.5.2 Qualitative research
3.5.2.1 May be personal
3.5.2.2 Research question instead of hypothesis
3.5.2.3 analysis instead of results
3.5.2.4 Reflexive analysis
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