The Ethics of Neuroscience Psychology WJEC AS

Obri Gonzalez
Mind Map by Obri Gonzalez, updated more than 1 year ago
Obri Gonzalez
Created by Obri Gonzalez over 4 years ago
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Description

Contemporary Debate on NEW specifications to Psychology WJEC AS. Developed in detail all process to answer 20 markers in preparation to exam Summer 2016

Resource summary

The Ethics of Neuroscience Psychology WJEC AS
1 Ethical as Provides Answers
1.1 Understand Consciousness

Annotations:

  • Philosophers have tried to understand 'consciousness'. Neuroscientists Francis CRICK & Cristof KOCH (1998) = Solution? Claustrum = Thin sheet of neurons, in centre of brain -> seat of consciousness.
1.1.1 Claustrum = Consciousness
1.1.2 Severe epilepsy Pp's

Annotations:

  • Experiences of 54 yrs. woman support study. Tests on her brain - electrode placed near 'Claustrum' = Electrically stimulated. Woman stopped reading, stared blankly = DIDN'T respond to visual /auditory commands. Stimulation stopped - regained consciousness w/ NO recollection of event. Repeated = same occurred 
1.1.2.1 Electrode + near CLAUSTRUM + electrical charge = NO RESPONSE visual/auditory
1.1.2.2 Persistent Vegetative State

Annotations:

  • This Knowldge could help make decisions on patients who are in PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE.
1.1.2.2.1 Conscious or NOT

Annotations:

  • The decision to END their life could be based on the KNOWLEDGE of whether they remain conscious or not.
1.1.2.2.2 Disorder of Consciousness

Annotations:

  • Persistent Vegetative State (PVS) is a disorder of consciousness which patients w/ severe brain damage are in state of arousal rather than true awareness.
1.1.2.2.2.1 Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome

Annotations:

  • Nowadays, more doctors and neuroscientists prefer (UWS), primarily because of ETHICAL Q's about whether patient can be called 'VEGETATIVE' or not
1.1.2.2.2.2 PVS recognised by USA law as DEATH
1.2 Treat Criminal Behaviour
1.2.1 Rehabilitate offenders

Annotations:

  • Role of any Criminal Justice System is to rehabilitate offenders in order to prevent further criminal behaviour
1.2.1.1 Abnormal level of neurotransmitters

Annotations:

  • Criminal behaviour stems from abnormal levels of neurotransmitters. If true then drugs could be used to "treat"criminals. 
1.2.2 Cherek et al. (2002)
1.2.2.1 Levels of impulsivity & aggression

Annotations:

  • In males w/ history of criminal behaviour
1.2.2.1.1 1/2 received PLACEBO for 21 days
1.2.2.1.2 1/2 administered PAROXATINE

Annotations:

  • An SSRI antidepressant. Showed significant decrease in impulsive responses + aggressions declined by end of study.
1.2.2.1.2.1 Pharmacological treatments = Society safer?

Annotations:

  • Offering pharmacological treatments to criminals could therefore reduce recidivism & make society safer for all.
1.3 Enhance Neurological Function
1.3.1 Improve Abilities "Normal" Individuals

Annotations:

  • Such as improved performance on complex tasks.
1.3.1.1 TDCS = small electric current + specific regions in brain

Annotations:

  • Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation
1.3.1.1.1 Cohen KADOSH et al. (2012)
1.3.1.1.1.1 IMPROVEMENTS
1.3.1.1.1.1.1 Problem-Solving
1.3.1.1.1.1.2 Mathematical
1.3.1.1.1.1.3 Language
1.3.1.1.1.1.4 Memory
1.3.1.1.1.1.5 Attention Capabilities
1.3.1.1.1.2 Preparation for EXAMS
1.3.1.1.1.2.1 Neuronenhancement

Annotations:

  • It's not a new thing. Many students already "neuronenhance" themselves whenever use "caffeine-based drinks" to block adenosine receptors in brain and hence more alert to revise.
1.4 Improve Maketing Techniques
1.4.1 "Neuromarketing"

Annotations:

  • Applied in world of advertising & marketing.
1.4.1.1 Market research NOT give true opinions

Annotations:

  • Interviewed by market research not give true opinions because want to appear in "GOOD LIGHT"
1.4.1.1.1 Social Desirability Bias avoided
1.4.1.1.1.1 Eye tracking equipment

Annotations:

  • Provides objective evidence of what really catches a person's eye when shopping or watching advertising
1.4.1.1.1.1.1 "The Force Volkwagen"

Annotations:

  • Advert highly successful ad. It upped traffic to VW website by half, contributed to hugely successful sales year for brand.
1.5 Ethics resolved in terms of costs vs benefits
2 NOT Ethical
2.1 Understand Consciousness
2.1.1 Life-Support withdrawn?

Annotations:

  • If neuroscientists able to locate consciousness in brain = leads to implications.
2.1.1.1 Persistent Vegetative State
2.1.1.1.1 Moral Right ?

Annotations:

  • Just because patient currently lost consciousness, does it mean have right to withdraw?
2.1.1.1.1.1 Case Study = 1 abnormal brain
2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Doubt on soundness of evidence

Annotations:

  • A person suffering from severe epilepsy.
2.2 Treat Criminal Behaviour
2.2.1 Mandatory Interventions for prisoners?

Annotations:

  • Is it acceptable as many criminal behaviours to neurological imbalances = see crime as response to social context.
2.2.1.1 Martha FARAH (2004)
2.2.1.1.1 Courts use of neurological intervention
2.2.1.1.1.1 Denial Individual's FREEDOM

Annotations:

  • Something that prisoners have NOT been denied previously. E.G: the freedom to have your own personality & to think your own thoughts.
2.2.1.2 Court offer 2 choices to convicted prisoners
2.2.1.2.1 Prison Term
2.2.1.2.2 Course of Medication
2.2.1.2.3 Ethical issue
2.2.1.2.3.1 Implicit Coercion

Annotations:

  • The criminal left wi/ very little choice about medications.
2.3 Enhance Neurological Function
2.3.1 Ethical issue to TDCS technology
2.3.1.1 Cohen KADOSH et al.
2.3.1.2 No training
2.3.1.2.1 Licensing RULES
2.3.1.2.1.1 For Practitioners

Annotations:

  • Lead to poorly qualified clinicians @ best administering ineffective treatments. Or at worst causing brain damage to patients.
2.3.2 TDCS apparatus NOT available to everyone

Annotations:

  • Not fair to allow some individuals to BENEFIT from treatment, which is NOT available to all.
2.3.2.1 NOT fair to allow some individuals
2.3.2.2 Banning use of Neuroenhancing Technologies
2.3.2.2.1 Performance-Enhancing in sports BANNED
2.3.2.3 Brains that are still developing

Annotations:

  • Important when using the treatment w/ brains that are still developing, I.e children, students.
2.3.2.3.1 Students
2.4 Improve Marketing Techniques

Annotations:

  • Accessing info about consumer preferences & behaviours is NOT new. Use of: Loyalty cards + Analysing online browsing records of indivuals
2.4.1 Consumer preferences NOT new
2.4.1.1 Product Marketing much more effective
2.4.2 Neuromarketing ACCESS to Inner Thoughts
2.4.2.1 Wilson et al. (2008)

Annotations:

  • Commercial integration of neuromarketing research will allow advertisers to deliver individualised messages where our FREE WILL potentially manipulated by big brands.
2.4.2.1.1 FREE WILL manipulated
2.4.2.1.1.1 Individualised messages
2.4.2.1.1.2 Remove ability to make informed decisions

Annotations:

  • Produce marketing messages that remove our ability to make informed decisions, whether we purchase a product or NOT.
2.4.2.2 Incidental Findings

Annotations:

  • Nelson (2008) found 5% of brain scans recorded by marketing firms produced "incidental findings". E.G: Researchers might see evidence of brain tumour/ other problem w/ person's brain function
2.4.2.2.1 Brain Tumour

Annotations:

  • Researchers not "Board-certified" are not obliged to follow appropriate ethical protocols, such as advising the person of findings.
3 IMPLICATIONS
3.1 Economical
3.1.1 Stimulating Sales & Profits
3.1.2 Depression in adults

Annotations:

  • Thomas & Morris (2003) estimated the total cost of depression in England alone was £9.1 billion in 2000.
3.2 Social
3.2.1 Financial Crisis (2008) Antidepressants increase

Annotations:

  • Nuffield Trust (2014) since financial crisis started in 2008, there has been an increase in amount of antidepressants being prescribed.
3.2.1.1 Greater amongst areas of population higher rates of unemployment
4 Introduction
4.1 Scientific investigation of BRAIN

Annotations:

  • Neuroscience is the Knowldge gained from scientific investigation of the brain. This could be information from brain scans or how neurotransmitters work. This knowledge may be then used to change or manipulate individuals behaviour. It's this manipulation that often leads to ethical debates which are often solved in terms of costs vs benefits - something is ethical if the benefits outweigh the costs.
5 Conclusion
5.1 NOT unethical

Annotations:

  • In conclusion, neuroscience in itself is NOT unethical. It's the application which needs to be considered
5.1.1 Removing brain tumour

Annotations:

  • Few would argue with the ethics of using brain scans to identify and remove a brain tumour.
5.1.1.1 Alter Behaviour

Annotations:

  • But when neuroscience is used to alter behaviour to fit prevailing societal norms, then it's use must be carefully controlled.
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