Germany 1918-1989

Remi Bahar
Mind Map by Remi Bahar, updated more than 1 year ago
Remi Bahar
Created by Remi Bahar over 5 years ago
40
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Description

Mind Map on Germany 1918-1989, created by Remi Bahar on 05/14/2016.

Resource summary

Germany 1918-1989
  1. Weimar Republic 1918-33
    1. Formation 1918
      1. Political and Economic Crises 1918-24
        1. Economic Recovery 1924-29
          1. Great Depression 1929-32
            1. 1933 Rise of the Nazi Party
              1. Overall
                1. Divided education

                  Annotations:

                  • -4 years, apprentiships or trade -6 years, technical skill or buisness -9 years, university. Corporations exclusive -Confessional, common/ simultaneous, secular -Concessional education acts. Federal, varied lander, diverse
                  1. Discrimination

                    Annotations:

                    • -Volk vs Weimar Constitution -Gypsies. Article 113. Bavaria 1923 and 1926 -Poles. WW1 enemy -Jews. Jew Berlin, falling BR 1% -Black people
                    1. B How accurate is it to say that the years 1918 to 1929 were a period of economic disruption followed by a period of stability and consolidation?

                      Annotations:

                      • True: -Hyperinflation, unemployment, blackmarket 1923. Stressemann introduced Retenmark and with it growth -Cartels helped buisnesses to survive and associations -Germany was a pariah state pre 1923. Post-1923 Kellog-Briand pact, Ruhr negotiations,. Lorcano treaty, Dawes and Young plan increased German exports to pre war levels and beyond -With introduction of US loans, ushered in a Golden Age of the Weimar Republic 
                      • Not true: -Not entirely stable. Based on US loans and a volatile financial market -Cartels allowed some stability even in economic disruption -Still had war debts, reparations, high Government expenditure so not stable, increasing lowest tax band  
                    2. RNETANDA

                      Annotations:

                      • -Reichstag Fire. Lubbe. Investment, decree for the protection of the people and state  -New elections. More power -Enabling act. SA. One party state -Trade unions banned. DAF -Night of the Long Knives. SA, Strauss brothers, political opponents -Death of Hindenberg. Fuhrer law plebiscite  -Army oath
                    3. Mass unemployment 1929

                      Annotations:

                      • -Caused by USA stock market crash in the Great Depression. US loans called in -Political extremism, KDP vs NSDAP and Hindenberg -Hoover memoratium suspended Germany's need to pay reparations for 1 year in 1931
                      1. Failed economic recovery

                        Annotations:

                        • -Bruning deflation by reducing Government spending, avoid inflation. Cuts, taxes. Decree -Papen concessions and subsidies for certain buisnesses. Some recovery -Schleicher. Appointed Reich Commisoner for the Economy, never came to fruition
                        1. Fringe to Chancellor

                          Annotations:

                          • -SA violence. Small parties -SDP-USDP didn't unite. Right wing groups did -Alternative to Communism -Goebells -Failure of democracy -Political turmoil -Papen and Hindenberg think they can control Hitler
                        2. Rentenmark and Foreign policy

                          Annotations:

                          • -Rentenmark decree, stabilised economy -Dawes and Young plan restructured reparation repayments, US loans -Kellog-Briand pact, Lorcano Treaty, stop passive Ruhr resistance. Increase exports
                          1. Unsustainable

                            Annotations:

                            • -Based on loans -Government had a high expenditure and borrowing. Coudn't rely on tax too much as increasing lowest tax bracket
                          2. New Woman vs Kinder, Kurche, Kirche

                            Annotations:

                            • -Pay discrimination -Trade unions reluctant -Lower birth rate, ageing population -Children home at lunch -Youth disillusionment, vogue -Job temporary hobby -Employment decreased after war -Basic jobs -Dix lost feminity 
                            • -Women could vote. Politicans represented, female politicans -Vogue loved new women -Higher employment -More sexual freedom
                            1. Changing mass media

                              Annotations:

                              • -Radio, international culture -Art. Expressionalism vs traditional. Anti-semitism -Literature, Film. Socialist vs traditonal  -Theatre. More socialist -Architecture. Bahaus functionalism vs Traditonal  -Cabaret -Degenerate vs revolutionairy
                            2. Ebert-Groener Pact, Stinnes-Leigen agreement

                              Annotations:

                              • -Ebert not reform army, army support Government -Freikorp -Agreement 8 hour working day, Government woudn't get involved in disputes
                              1. Kapp Putsch 1919

                                Annotations:

                                • -Led by Kapp civil servant, restorationist  -Tried to takeover Government -Von Seckt Army refused -Stopped by universal general strike
                                1. Rathneau Assasination 1922

                                  Annotations:

                                  • -One of the November Criminals, also Jewish -After Government passed laws banning anti-semetic groups -German National Peoples Defensive and Offensive Alliance spread Stab in the Back myth, disbanded in 1923 many joined NSDAP -Formation of Jewish Solider Front
                                  1. Beer Hall Putsch 1923

                                    Annotations:

                                    • -Meeting to decide on Anschluss -Hitler invaded meeting with SA, demanded support -Betrayed Hitler, Hitler almost his nerve, Ludendorft -March failed in short term -Trial, 3 Nazi casulties increased popularity  -Sentenced to 3 months in Landsberg Castle, released early. Wrote Mein Kampft, changed political direction
                                2. Bavaria Rising 1920
                                  1. Sparticus Rising 1922

                                    Annotations:

                                    • -Leaders Luxemburg Jewish, Scheidermann killed in police custody -Bloodily suppressed by Freikorp 3 days fighting -Revolutionairy comittee  -Distributed guns amongst workers
                                    1. Saxony 1921

                                      Annotations:

                                      • -Wasn't part of Weimar Republic -Communist Government imposed -Reichsexekution was welcomed by locals -Many liked democracy but not the Government
                                3. Ruhr Occupation 1922

                                  Annotations:

                                  • -Treaty of London -Pushed inflation into hyperinflation -Black French soliders, led to mixed race children, seen as a symbol of Germany's embarressment, increased hostility. Cities black musicans
                                  1. Big organisations

                                    Annotations:

                                    • -Small buisnesses closed. Surviving big buisnesses formed cartels, price fixing. Cartels formed associations, IG Farben -Small farms heavy debt -Unemployment increased -Hindenberg blocked 1918 Reich resettlement law. Rich landowners pushed for grain subsidies
                                    1. Black Market

                                      Annotations:

                                      • -Industrialists exploited workers -Rich sellers charge extortinate prices -People bought and rented out cramped, poor accomandation -Anti-semitism. Support for extremist parties
                                    2. Disputes

                                      Annotations:

                                      • -State arbitary boards introduced 1923 -Disputes lowered productivity, even with industrial expansion. Stopped depression
                                    3. Revolution from above

                                      Annotations:

                                      • -Failed Ludendorft Offensive -Wilson's 14 point plan for peace -Attempted to create a constitutional monarchy
                                      1. Revolution from below

                                        Annotations:

                                        • -Kiel mutiny spread -Eisner proclaming Bavaria an indpendent socialist republic
                                        1. Prince Max

                                          Annotations:

                                          • -Formed Government out of parties in the Reichstag, SDP and USDP Assembly -Was forced to abdicate
                                          1. Ebert and the Weimar Constitution

                                            Annotations:

                                            • -Called a national election. Pro-democratic parties got most votes, high turnout -Women could vote
                                            • -Drew up the Weimar Constitution President Article 48 voted 6 years, Chancellor chosen, Cabinet of Ministers, Reichstag proportional representation, Reichstrat veto list, 17 Federal Lander (Prussia) -Article 113 language and national identity 
                                        2. Treaty of Versailles

                                          Annotations:

                                          • -Warguilt article 238, unfixed reparations -Stab in the back myth. Jews, Communists, Democracy -German army 100 000, no u boats,  6 destroyers, no aircraft -Third of fishing fleet and merchant ships taken -Rhineland demilitarised
                                          • -November criminals -Armstice for 20 years -Wilson, George, Clemancu 
                                          1. Pariah state

                                            Annotations:

                                            • -US policy of isolationism, import tarrifs  -Freikorp -Treaty of Rapallo, Brest-Litovsk revolutionary shop steward
                                          2. Impact of WW1

                                            Annotations:

                                            • -Debts -Food shortages. Horses, Turnip winter, food front -Malnourishment, high infant mortality rate -Dependants and Veterans
                                            1. Background

                                              Annotations:

                                              • -Upper-class fee paying schools -Working class crowded volkschule. After 14 started work -Confessional divides, rascist Volk and Eugenics -Some integration with inferior ethnic minorities
                                          3. Nazi Germany 1933-45
                                            1. Consolidation of Power 1933-36
                                              1. Preparing for war 1936-39
                                                1. Wartime Government 1939-45
                                                  1. Overall
                                                    1. Women germ cell
                                                      1. Propoganda education

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • -Fired opposition -Nazi teachers union, courses -Propoganda education -Hitler youth -Eugenics -Physical education, RE -Elite schools
                                                        1. Terror

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • -Gestapo. Decree for the protection of the people and state, informers -SS -Concentration camps
                                                          1. B To what extent did the Nazi regime overturn the education system?

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • -Compare education system in Nazi Germany and Weimar Germany. How similar are they?
                                                            • Changes: -Religion was important in Weimar Germany. Confessional schools, simultaneous schools, secular. Nazi Germany religion not so prominent -Co-ordination of schools. Nazi propoganda, fuhrer, eugenics (discrimination), physical training  -Social mobility not based on wealth so much in Nazi Germany -Changed running of schools. Centralised unions, central curriculum -Introduction of Hitler youth, a nationwide state youth group backed later by law
                                                            • Continuity: -Elitist system. Weimar duelling corporations, working class disadvantaged. Nazi Germany, top Germans go to specialist schools to become future leaders -German-Aryan chambers
                                                            • Conclusion: -The Nazi regime overturned the education system to a large extent. However there are some broad similarities 
                                                            1. B To what extent were attempts to create a command economy in Nazi Germany succesful in solving the economic problems of the Weimar republic?

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • Understanding the question: -Economic problems of the Weimar republic. Hyperinflation 1923 high government expenditure. Mass unemployment 1930 part of global depression, short-term loans. Trade disputes, loss in productivity -Actions Nazis took -Command economy. State has total control
                                                              • Successes: -Introduced DAF, comittees for lots of sectors trustees of labour, banned trade unions. No longer any large trade disputes  -RNS building schemes employed lots of Germans. Helped to solve mass unemployment, lower Government expenditure (hyperinflation)  Less dependance (kind of relevant) -Less reliance on the unstable global financial market. Autarky Office FYP's goals, alternatives
                                                              • Failures: -Cells of resistance in factories, saboutage  -Food shortages due to guns vs butter. Still low standard of living -Employment stastics skewed  -Ineffiencies due to alternatives
                                                              • Conclusion: -To a large extent. No mass unemployment, hyperinflation, trade disputes
                                                            2. Increased persecution

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • -SS Einsatzgruppen. 1939 invasion of Poland, hard labour only -Hitler's final solution aka holocaust. Historiography? -Eastward expansion, lebensbraum -Ghettos
                                                              1. Changing structure

                                                                Annotations:

                                                                • -Decentralisation. Gautliers made RKK's federal armies, bereautic power. South Poland colony -Duplication Armed forces ministry, Kietel, war ministry, Office FYP -Short-lived organisation, group of 3
                                                                1. Increased opposition

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • -1944 Stauffenberg bomb plot -Increasing sabotage, terrorism, cells
                                                                2. Second FYP

                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                  • -Office FYP set targets. Goring industrial, agricultural production
                                                                  1. Problems

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • -Guns vs butter problem. Propoganda 
                                                                  2. Command Economy

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • -RNS imports and farms. Tax non-compliance 100 000 RM, tarrifs -1933 Reich trustees of labour (12 trustees from ministry of labour set working conditions) DAF
                                                                    1. Anti-semitism build up

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      • -Kristillnaught -Star of David -1936 Berlin games -Told Jews to leave
                                                                      1. Hitler's Foreign Policy
                                                                        1. Continuity

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • For continuity: -Third reich, alliances, propoganda -Alliance with Poland counter -Weimar revisionists, Ebert treaty of Brest-Litovsk -Kept Weimar government foreign policy officals
                                                                          • Against continutity -Blomberg-Fritsche affair and Hossbach memorandum  -Aryan race, alliances, expansion -Hitler not simply a revisionist, invasion of Poland (no German majority) -Keeping Weimar government foreign policy officials is duplication
                                                                          1. Masterplan

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • For -Similarities with Mein Kampft, Eastward expansion -Broad aims but is flexible acheiving -Anschluss constant aim -Treaties with Russia and Poland followed by invasion -Preparing for war autarky, command economy, conscription
                                                                            • Against -Mein Kampft explanation of his idealogy not a blueprint -Caught by suprise, actions of Austrian Nazis (Dolfuss), invasion of Poland -Argues for an alliance with Britain in Mein Kampft -Treaties with Russia and Poland followed by invasion -Anti-cominterm pacts followed by Nazi-Soviet pact
                                                                            1. Intention

                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                              • For WW2: -Nuremberg rallies speeches, Hossbach memorandum -Preparing for war, autarky, command economy, conscription -Nazi-Soviet pact and invasion of Poland
                                                                              • Against WW2: -Blitzkreig production -Britain and France appeasement
                                                                              1. Timeline

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • -1935 conscription -Rome-Berlin axis, anti-cominterm pact-Invades Austria-Annexes Sudetenland, invasion of Czech-Slovakia-Hossbach memorandum and Blomberg-Fritsche affair-Nazi-Soviet Pact-Invades Poland
                                                                                1. Wider context

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  • -Appeasement -Opportunist 
                                                                              2. Economic recovery FYP

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • -RAD 19-24, public work schemes -Schacht foreign good exchange
                                                                                1. Structure

                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                  • -Fuhrerprinzip, duplication -SS Goring. Gestapo 
                                                                                  1. Propoganda and Censorship

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • -Editors law -Daily breifings Goebells -NSDAP bought out newspapers -Set up their own intelligence agency -Set up peoples reciever -Stopped other radio stations -Aryan art vs degenerate -Goebells ministry of culture -Jazz banned
                                                                                    1. Targeted opposition

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • -Swing youth. non-conformity -Not joining Hitler youth -Eidelweiss pirates -PEL  -Workers cells -White rose -KPD
                                                                                  2. FRG 1945-89
                                                                                    1. Creation 1945-49
                                                                                      1. 1950-65 Economic Miracle and Consolidation
                                                                                        1. Economic Challenges 1966-89, maintaining stability
                                                                                          1. Overall
                                                                                            1. Education

                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                              • -Fired some Nazi teachers, closed schools 1944 -American system  -Nazi History problem. Physcoanalysts infectious disease, some Lander changed policy -Bund-Lander komission disagreements restructuring. Basic law federal  -Stop confessional education, choosing career paths early -Mixed state funding and loans for working class students part of Federal Education promotion act -Universities outdated-Germans resisted changes, overcrowded classes
                                                                                              1. Cultural tensions

                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                • -Older generation, leader of German culture, romantacised countryside, escapism -Younger generation, social commentaries, American culture (some British) -Anti consumerism -Cultural idenity?
                                                                                                1. Living standards

                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                  • -Post WW2. Starvation, homelessness, refugees -Economic recovery and consumerism increased standards of living -Most covered by state pensions, healthcare, and benifits  -Widening social inequality too
                                                                                                  1. Women

                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                    • -Post WW2: high rate of employment, surplus women -Women filled gaps in Economic recovery/miracle -Vote -
                                                                                                    1. A Was unemployment the main reason for the varying treatment of minorities in the FRG 1960-89?

                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                      • Yes: -Oil crises 1972 and 1978. Increased unemployment. Ban recruiting -After children given same rights, comissoner for foreigner's affairs appointed by Schmidt, apply for unrestricted residence -Guest workers -1960's recession pressure on guest workers to leave, severance packages, refused tenancy 
                                                                                                      • No: -Guest workers themselves.Faith. Confessional schools, Koran schools. Ethnic association  -Rising of the Berlin wall increased number of guest workers, Government helped recruit them. Full employment -Hostility throughout, temporary, never equal, German attitude 
                                                                                                      • Conclusion: -Unemployment was as clear link between unemployment and the treatment of minorities
                                                                                                      1. B How significant was the period of Nazi rule in the development of cultural and generational tensions in the FRG?

                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                        • -What were the cultural and generational tensions?  How did these tensions progress? -What caused these tensions?  -Out of these causes, how important was Nazi Germany?
                                                                                                        • Nazi causes: -Adaneur's year zero policy, article 113. Younger generation, autschwitz generation. Caused by holocaust, gleichscaltung and Nuremberg trials. Physcoanalysts -Nazi's censorship, older Germans romantacise countryside, escapism. Younger Germans want social commentary
                                                                                                        • Non-Nazi causes: -Green movement and associated tensions, cold war. FRG joining NATO, nuclear weapons, Korean war. Media -Actions of politicans to maintain stability. Adaneur banned KPD, SPD changed policy, passing of emergency law protests Bonn. Esculating violence
                                                                                                        • Conclusion: -Nazi rule was significant, but actions of FRG politicans equally significant
                                                                                                        1. B How far do you agree that the Federal Republic saw a complete rejection of the traditional female role and sterotypes that had existed in Germany since 1918?

                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                          • Understanding the question: -What were the stereotypes and roles since the end of WW1 associated with women? -In what ways were these sterotypes changed and continued in the FRG? -Were they completley rejected?
                                                                                                          • Change i.e. rejected: -Reversion of the German Civil Code 1958. Men no longer take over women's property on marriage, women can work regardless of them being wives or mothers -Attempted reversion of article 218 women can now legally have an abortion  -Equality under basic law -More independence. Higher divorce rate -Women's liberation movements. Against kinder, change school hours, set up free day care centres, city based lesbian movements, not too significant
                                                                                                          • Continuity i.e. not rejected: -Ministry for family affairs. Kinder, Kirche, Kurche sterotype -Weimar republic had more emancipated women  -Popular opinion anti-abortion, supported role of women as homemakers -Resistance to women's emancipation. Failed West Berlin commune, 12 week abortion law attracted outcry, no working towards equal work rights
                                                                                                          • Conclusion: -Traditional female role and sterotype mostly remained in Germany. Most changes theoretical 
                                                                                                        2. Terrorism

                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                          • -Baader-Mienhof gang/ RAF. PLO, published, leaflets. Hunger strikes then bombings -Munich bombings  -Support for terrorism, fluid
                                                                                                          1. Control

                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                            • -After Munich bombings, GSG-9 -BEFA centralised police reports -Anti-radical decree, vetting of anyone applying for a state job
                                                                                                          2. Brandt

                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                            • -Grand coalition SDP-FDP -Passed emergency law, increasing violence moving it underground -1970's FDP and SPD members joined CDU -Guillame affair 
                                                                                                            1. Schmidt

                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                              • -SPD -High taxes, welfare cuts, vote of no confidence
                                                                                                              1. Kohl

                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                • -Won early election he called -Green and Republican opposition 
                                                                                                                1. Fall of Berlin wall

                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                  • -Joined the EEC, adopted single currency -Lifted travel restrictions on Soviet satelliate states Austria, people flooded Berlin wall spontaneously, Berlin wall came down next few days
                                                                                                            2. Guest worker hostility

                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                              • -Guest workers banned from being hired in 1973 and 1978 oil crises, contracts not renewed  -After oil crises, guest workers children given same rights, guest workers could apply for unrestricted residence, ban lifted, first federal comissoner for foreigner's affairs appointed by Schmidt
                                                                                                              1. Recession

                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                • -High government expenditure, increased inflation, unemployment, decreased production -Schiller agriculture subsidies, cartels -Economic stablisation law allowed Government to stop Lander spending too much -Five year plan Government spending -Policies regarded as a failure -Federal law allowed Government to redistribute money amongst Lander -
                                                                                                                1. Oil crises

                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                  • -Oil crises, 4th Arab-Israeli war, OPEC oil more expensive. Unemployment, ageing baby boomers
                                                                                                                  1. 1980's challenges

                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                    • -Rich-poor growing divide, guest worker hostility. Unemployment rose, Government spent more on helping unemployed -1982 Government cut spending, blamed productivity loss on slack baby boomer generation -Schmidt cuts -By 1989 growth again, decreased unemployment
                                                                                                                    1. EEC

                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                      • -Response to Oil crises. Germany and France pushed for creation of a single European currency -FRG imports and exports increased
                                                                                                                2. Women more equality

                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                  • -1977 women given equal rights in marriage, overturned Civil Code law allowing women to work only if it didn't interfere with their role as a wife and mother -Most Germans still supported the gender stereotypes in surverys -Womens liberation movements amongst radicals in Universities and cities -West Berlin students failed setting up an equal commune -Action Council for Women's liberation set up in West Berlin. Created free day care centres, campaigned with nursury school teachers to change way schools were run. Split 1969 mother faction
                                                                                                                  1. Liberation movements

                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                    • -West Berlin failed equal commune -Action Council for Women's Liberation. Day care, campaign with Nursery school teachers to change way schools run (no school afternoon)  Split mother faction -Paragraph 218 targeted made arbotion a crime to have done or perform unless strong medical reason, most Germans supported -Refuges for domestic violence victims, articles women's health, city based lesbian movement  -Law to legalise under 12 week abortion passed, huge public outcry, federal court deemed it unconstituional
                                                                                                                    1. Unification

                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                      • -DRG women more emancipated. State creches, needed to work 
                                                                                                                  2. Erhad's Economic Miracle

                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                    • -Investment, increased living standards -Korean war and NATO steel and chemicals, FRG could re arm after NATO -Exports, Volkswagen  -Guest workers, kept wages low, efficent
                                                                                                                    1. Social market economy

                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                      • -Competition  -Social welfare  -Consumerism. Erhad control of rations
                                                                                                                      1. War recovery

                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                        • -Equilisation of Burdens act. Tax on assests. Money redistributed -Building industry tax concessions, rents frozen, housing associations set up to provide social housing
                                                                                                                      2. Problems

                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                        • -After the first wave of consumerism, people replaced their goods less often
                                                                                                                      3. Adenaur's Chancellorship Democracy

                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                        • -Banned Socialist Reich party, took seats KDP -Weak minister-Atlanticist, joined NATO-Centralised BFV, BND's power-Year zero policy, article 113 ex-Nazis civil service. BND abroad chancellor, BFV national interior -Government TV station pre-elecitons overuled Supreme court, boycotted by FPD, arrested Der Spiegel journalists Strauss NATO involvement  -Employment ban
                                                                                                                        1. Opposition

                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                          • -Generational tensions. Year zero vs Autschwitz generation  -Growing green movement. NATO, cold war, Vietnam war, shah of Iran -SPD moderate 1951 KPD minority, marches in cities
                                                                                                                          1. Ohnesorg shot

                                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                                            • -Protests against Shah of Iran's visit -Ohnesorg shot by police -Sparked riots. Increased SDS membership, split in level of violence, no negotiating with Autschwitz generation
                                                                                                                            1. Easter riots

                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                              • -Dutschke shot right wing fanatics, der spigel Axel springer -Offices attacked nationwide. No negotiating with Autschwitz generation -Led to emergency law?
                                                                                                                              1. Bonn protest

                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                • -As a reaction to passing of the emergency law
                                                                                                                            2. APO?
                                                                                                                            3. Erhad

                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                              • -Fails to pass emergency law -High taxes in budget, FDP ministers resign -CDU Atlantacists- Gaullists
                                                                                                                            4. Guest workers

                                                                                                                              Annotations:

                                                                                                                              • -Rise of the Berlin wall, full employment, economic miracle -Foreign offices. Yearly contracts, paid same, accomadation -Native Germans manual to office
                                                                                                                              1. Tensions

                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                • -1960's recession, severance packages, landlords discriminated  -Guest workers wanted to bring their families over -Illegal immigrants  -Inequal rights. Unrestricted residence, not citizens -Formed ethnic associations and Koran schools
                                                                                                                              2. Women held back

                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                • -Stopped women actively pursuing their careers as much due to Nazi propoganda -Most female politicans had been around since before 1933 -Ministry for Family Affairs set up 1953 gave wives and mothers financial benifits, so they woudn't have to work -Sexist  German civil code in effect until 1958. Married women needed husband's permission to work, husband got control of property upon marriage -Bundestag split between SPD and CDU
                                                                                                                              3. Potsdam Conference 1945

                                                                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                                                                • -Denazification, decentralisation, disarmament, democracy -Nuremberg trials -Not allowed to produce weapons, sanctions war related industries-Allies closed schools. Fired some Nazis
                                                                                                                                1. FRG and Basic Law

                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                  • -Bundestag, 5% vote, proportional representation, chancellors, 4 year votes party and local representative -Bunderstrat, federal -Basic law. Equality, freedom, clause ban political parties
                                                                                                                                  1. First elections

                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                    • -Moderate political parties -KDP-CDU coalition -High turnout. Initally reluctant. Changed with time
                                                                                                                                2. Migrant influx

                                                                                                                                  Annotations:

                                                                                                                                  • -Expelles, GDR migration
                                                                                                                                  1. Relationship with GDR

                                                                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                                                                    • -Allied control council and Berlin, infrastructure single economic unit, reunification possibility -Marshall plan vs march to Berlin, FRG  CDU-FDP (unifying) vs GDR SED, Hallestein doctrine, DM Marshall plan division new currency GDR
                                                                                                                                    1. DM

                                                                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                                                                      • -Broke up black markets, growth (increased saving, spending, employment, production) -Exchanged RM to DM (short supply)
                                                                                                                                      1. Removed wartime controls

                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                        • -No more rations or price fixing
                                                                                                                                      2. Opposition simmered

                                                                                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                                                                                        • -People more focused on rebuilding Germany -Political parties mostly moderate
                                                                                                                                        1. Womens breif emancipation

                                                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                                                          • -7.3 million surplus women -High employment, rebuilding -Divorce rate rose -Equal under article 3
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