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WW2: 1939-1945

Description

Leaving Certificate Group Project (Sample Content) Mind Map on WW2: 1939-1945, created by PatrickNoonan on 10/15/2012.
PatrickNoonan
Mind Map by PatrickNoonan, updated more than 1 year ago
PatrickNoonan
Created by PatrickNoonan over 9 years ago
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Resource summary

WW2: 1939-1945
  1. Key Figures
    1. Allies
      1. UK
        1. Neville Chamberlain

          Annotations:

          • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-H12967%2C_M%C3%BCnchener_Abkommen%2C_Chamberlain.jpg]Arthur Neville Chamberlain FRS (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fellow_of_the_Royal_Society)[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neville_Chamberlain#cite_note-FOOTNOTEHadley1941-0) (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British Conservative (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservative_Party_(UK)) politician (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politician) who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_the_United_Kingdom) from May 1937 to May 1940. Chamberlain is best known for his appeasement (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appeasement) foreign policy, and in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Munich_Agreement) in 1938, conceding the Sudetenland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudetenland) region of Czechoslovakia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czechoslovakia)to Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany). When Adolf Hitler (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler) continued his aggression by invading Poland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasion_of_Poland), Britain declared war on Germany on 3 September 1939, and Chamberlain led Britain through the first eight months of the Second World War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_World_War).
          1. Winston Churchill

            Annotations:

            • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/Sir_Winston_S_Churchill.jpg] Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knight_of_the_Garter), OM (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Order_of_Merit), CH (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Companion_of_Honour), TD (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Territorial_Decoration), PC (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Her_Majesty%27s_Most_Honourable_Privy_Council), DL (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deputy_Lieutenant), FRS (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fellow_of_the_Royal_Society), Hon. RA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Academician) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British Conservative (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservative_Party_(UK)) politician and statesman (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Politician) known for his leadership of the United Kingdom during the Second World War. Widely regarded as one of the greatest wartime leaders of the past century, he served as Prime Minister (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_the_United_Kingdom) twice (1940–45 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UK_general_election,_1945) and1951 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UK_general_election,_1951)–55). A noted statesman and orator, Churchill was also an officer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Officer_(armed_forces)) in the British Army, a historian, a writer, and an artist. He is the only British prime minister (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Prime_Ministers_of_the_United_Kingdom) to have received the Nobel Prize in Literature (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nobel_Prize_in_Literature), and was the first person to be made an Honorary Citizen of the United States (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honorary_Citizen_of_the_United_States). Churchill was born into the aristocratic family of the Dukes of Marlborough (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duke_of_Marlborough_(title)). His father, Lord Randolph Churchill (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_Randolph_Churchill), was a charismatic politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chancellor_of_the_Exchequer); his mother, Jennie Jerome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Randolph_Churchill), was an American socialite. As a young army officer, he saw action in British India (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_India), the Sudan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sudan), and the Second Boer War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Boer_War). He gained fame as a war correspondent and wrote books about his campaigns. At the forefront of politics for fifty years, he held many political and cabinet positions. Before the First World War, he served as President of the Board of Trade (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secretary_of_State_for_Business,_Innovation_and_Skills), Home Secretary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Home_Secretary), and First Lord of the Admiralty (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lords_Commissioners_of_the_Admiralty) as part of the Asquith (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H._H._Asquith) Liberal government (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_Government_1905%E2%80%931915). During the war, he continued as First Lord of the Admiralty until the disastrous Gallipoli Campaign (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallipoli_Campaign) caused his departure from government. He then briefly resumed active army service on the Western Front (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Front_(World_War_I)) as commander of the 6th Battalion of the Royal Scots Fusiliers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Scots_Fusiliers). He returned to government as Minister of Munitions (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minister_of_Munitions), Secretary of State for War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secretary_of_State_for_War), and Secretary of State for Air (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Secretary_of_State_for_Air). After the War, Churchill served as Chancellor of the Exchequer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chancellor_of_the_Exchequer) in the Conservative (Baldwin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stanley_Baldwin)) government of 1924–29, controversially returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gold_standard) at its pre-war parity, a move widely seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy. Also controversial was his opposition to increased home rule for India and his resistance to the 1936 abdication of Edward VIII (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_VIII). Out of office and politically "in the wilderness" during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in warning about Nazi Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany) and in campaigning for rearmament. On the outbreak of the Second World War, he was again appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. Following the resignation of Neville Chamberlain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neville_Chamberlain) on 10 May 1940, Churchill became Prime Minister. His steadfast refusal to consider defeat, surrender, or a compromise peace helped inspire British resistance, especially during the difficult early days of the War when Britain stood alone in its active opposition toAdolf Hitler (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler). Churchill was particularly noted for his speeches and radio broadcasts, which helped inspire the British people. He led Britain as Prime Minister until victory over Nazi Germany had been secured. After the Conservative Party lost the 1945 election (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom_general_election,_1945), he became Leader of the Opposition (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Official_Opposition_(United_Kingdom)). In 1951, he again became Prime Minister, before retiring in 1955. Upon his death, Elizabeth II (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_II)granted him the honour of a state funeral (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_funeral), which saw one of the largest assemblies of world statesmen in history.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winston_Churchill#cite_note-news-0) Named the Greatest Briton (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/100_Greatest_Britons) of all time in a 2002 poll, Churchill is widely regarded as being among the most influential people in British history.
          2. USA
            1. Dwight D. Eisenhower

              Annotations:

              • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Dwight_D._Eisenhower%2C_official_photo_portrait%2C_May_29%2C_1959.jpg]   Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (pronounced / (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English)? (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key)a? (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key)z (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key)?n (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key)h (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key)a??r (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English#Key)/ (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_English), eye-z?n-how-?r (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Pronunciation_respelling_key); October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was the 34th (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Presidents_of_the_United_States) President of the United States (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_United_States) from 1953 until 1961. He had previously been a five-star general (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_of_the_Army_(United_States)) in the United States Army (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Army) during World War II, and served as Supreme Commander (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Commander_of_the_Allied_Expeditionary_Force) of the Allied Forces (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allies_of_World_War_II) in Europe; he had responsibility for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Torch) in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasion_of_Normandy) and Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drive_to_the_Siegfried_Line) in 1944–45, from the Western Front (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_Front_(World_War_II)). In 1951, he became the firstsupreme commander of NATO (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supreme_Allied_Commander_Europe).[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eisenhower#cite_note-1) Eisenhower was of Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry, and was reared in a large family in Kansas, by parents with a robust work ethic and religious background. As one of six sons, he was conditioned by a competitive atmosphere which instilled self-reliance. He attended and graduated from West Point (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_United_States_Military_Academy), and later was married with two sons. After World War II Eisenhower served as Chief of Staff under President Harry S. Truman (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_S._Truman), then assumed the post of President at Columbia University (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Columbia_University).[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eisenhower#cite_note-2) Eisenhower entered the 1952 presidential race as a Republican, to counter the non-interventionism of Senator Robert A. Taft (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_A._Taft), and to crusade against "Communism, Korea and corruption". He won by a landslide, defeating Democrat Adlai Stevenson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adlai_Stevenson_II) and ending two decades of the New Deal Coalition (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Deal_Coalition). In the first year of his presidency Eisenhower deposed the leader of Iran in the1953 Iranian coup d'etat (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1953_Iranian_coup_d%27etat), and used nuclear threats to conclude the Korean War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_War) with China (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peoples_Republic_of_China). His New Look (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Look_(policy)) policy of nuclear deterrence (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_deterrence) gave priority to inexpensive nuclear weapons (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_weapons_and_the_United_States) while reducing the funding for conventional military forces; the goal was to keep pressure on the Soviet Union (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union) and reduce federal deficits. In 1954 Eisenhower first articulated the domino theory (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domino_theory) in his description of the threat presented by the spread of communism. The Congress agreed to his request in 1955 for the Formosa Resolution (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formosa_Resolution_of_1955), which enabled him to prevent Chinese communist aggression against Chinese nationalists and established U.S. policy of defending Taiwan. When the Soviets launched Sputnik (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sputnik) in 1957 he had to play catchup in the space race. Eisenhower forced Israel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel), the UK and France to end their invasion of Egypt during the Suez Crisis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suez_Crisis) of 1956. In 1958 he sent 15,000 US troops to Lebanon to prevent the pro-Western government from falling to a Nasser (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nasser)-inspired revolution. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed because of the U-2 incident (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U-2_incident) when an American spy plane was shot down over Russia and its pilot captured.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eisenhower#cite_note-3) On the domestic front, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_McCarthy) but contributed to the end of McCarthyism by openly invoking the modern expanded version of executive privilege (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Executive_privilege). He otherwise left most political activity to his Vice President, Richard Nixon (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Nixon). He was a moderate conservative (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservatism_in_the_United_States) who continued New Deal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Deal) agencies, expanded Social Security (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Security_(United_States)) and launched the Interstate Highway System (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interstate_Highway_System). He sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Little_Rock,_Arkansas), for the first time since Reconstruction (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reconstruction_era_(United_States)) to enforce federal court orders to desegregate public schools, and signed civil rights legislation in 1957 and 1960 to protect the right to vote. He implemented desegregation of the armed forces in two years, and made five appointments to the Supreme Court. He was the first term-limited president in accordance with the 22nd Amendment (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twenty-second_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution). Eisenhower's two terms were peaceful ones for the most part and saw considerable economic prosperity except for a sharp recession in 1958–59. Eisenhower is now often ranked (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_rankings_of_Presidents_of_the_United_States#Scholar_survey_results) as one of the top ten U.S. Presidents.
              1. Harry S. Truman

                Annotations:

                • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/Harry-truman.jpg] Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was the 33rd (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Presidents_of_the_United_States) President of the United States (1945–1953). The final running mate (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Running_mate) of President Franklin D. Roosevelt (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt) in 1944, Truman succeeded to the presidency on April 12, 1945, when Roosevelt died after months of declining health. Under Truman, a Democrat, the U.S. successfully concluded World War II (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II); in the aftermath of the conflict, tensions with the Soviet Union (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union) increased, the start of the Cold War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War). Truman was born in Missouri, and spent most of his youth as a farmer. During World War I (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I), Truman served in combat in France as an artillery officer in his National Guard unit. After the war, he joined the Democratic Party political machine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_machine) of Tom Pendergast (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Pendergast) in Kansas City, Missouri (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_City,_Missouri). He was elected a county official and in 1934 U.S. senator (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Senate). He gained national prominence as head of the wartime Truman Committee (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truman_Committee), which exposed waste, fraud and corruption in wartime contracts. Truman's presidency was a turning point in foreign affairs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_relations_of_the_United_States), as the nation supported an internationalist foreign policy, in conjunction with European allies. Germany surrendered a few weeks after Truman took office, but the war with Japan was expected to last another year or more. Truman's decision to use nuclear weapons against Japan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki) led to a speedy end of the war but remains controversial. Working closely with Congress, Truman assisted in the founding of the United Nations, issued the Truman Doctrine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Truman_Doctrine) to contain communism, and passed the $12 billionMarshall Plan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marshall_Plan) to rebuild Europe. Wartime alliance with the Soviet Union became peacetime opposition, and the Cold War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War) began. He oversaw the Berlin Airlift (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Airlift) in 1948 and the creation of NATO (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NATO)in 1949. When communist North Korea invaded South Korea in 1950, he immediately sent in U.S. troops and gained UN approval for the Korean War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_War). After initial success, the UN forces were thrown back by Chinese intervention and the conflict was stalemated through the final years of Truman's presidency. Corruption in Truman's administration, which was linked to certain members in the cabinet (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Cabinet) and senior White House staff, was a central issue in the 1952 presidential campaign (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election,_1952) which Adlai Stevenson (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adlai_Stevenson_II), Truman's successor as Democratic nominee, lost to Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_D._Eisenhower). Popular and scholarly assessments of his presidency were initially negative, but eventually became more positive after his retirement from politics. Truman's 1948 election upset (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election,_1948) for his full term as president is routinely invoked by underdog candidates.
                1. Franklin D. Roosevelt

                  Annotations:

                  • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b8/FDR_in_1933.jpg] Franklin Delano Roosevelt ( January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), also known by his initials, FDR, was the 32nd (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Presidents_of_the_United_States) President of the United States (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_the_United_States) (1933–1945) and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic depression and total war. A Democrat, the only American president elected to more than two terms, he facilitated a durable coalition that realigned American politics for decades. With the bouncy popular song "Happy Days Are Here Again (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Happy_Days_Are_Here_Again)" as his campaign theme, FDR defeated incumbent Republican Herbert Hoover (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Hoover) in November 1932 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_presidential_election,_1932), at the depth of the Great Depression (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Depression_in_the_United_States). Energized by his personal victory over paralytic illness (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt%27s_paralytic_illness), FDR's unfailing optimism and activism contributed to a renewal of the national spirit.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt#cite_note-0) He worked closely with Winston Churchill (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winston_Churchill) and Joseph Stalin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin) in leading the Allies against Germany and Japan in World War II (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II), but died just as victory was in sight. In his first hundred days (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_hundred_days) in office, which began March 4, 1933, Roosevelt spearheaded major legislation and issued a profusion of executive orders that instituted the New Deal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Deal)—a variety of programs designed to produce relief (government jobs for the unemployed), recovery (economic growth), and reform (through regulation of Wall Street, banks and transportation). The economy improved rapidly from 1933 to 1937, but then relapsed into a deep recession. The bipartisan Conservative Coalition (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conservative_Coalition) that formed in 1937 prevented his packing the Supreme Court (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judiciary_Reorganization_Bill_of_1937) or passing any considerable legislation; it abolished many of the relief programs when unemployment diminished during World War II. Most of the regulations on business were ended about 1975–85, except for the regulation of Wall Street by the Securities and Exchange Commission (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Securities_and_Exchange_Commission), which still exists. Along with several smaller programs, major surviving programs include the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Federal_Deposit_Insurance_Corporation), which was created in 1933, and Social Security (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Security_(United_States)), which Congress passed in 1935. As World War II loomed after 1938, with the Japanese invasion of China and the aggressions of Nazi Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany), FDR gave strong diplomatic and financial support to China and the United Kingdom, while remaining officially neutral. His goal was to make America the "Arsenal of Democracy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arsenal_of_Democracy)" which would supply munitions to the Allies (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allies_of_World_War_II). In March 1941, Roosevelt, with Congressional approval, provided Lend-Lease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lend-Lease) aid to the countries fighting against Nazi Germany with Britain. With very strong national support, he made war on Japan and Germany after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attack_on_Pearl_Harbor) on December 7, 1941, calling it a "date which will live in infamy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infamy_Speech)". He supervised the mobilization of the U.S. economy to support the Allied war effort. As an active military leader, Roosevelt implemented an overall war strategy on two fronts that ended in the defeat of the Axis Powers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_Powers) and the development of the world's first atom bomb (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atom_bomb). In 1942 Roosevelt ordered the internment (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_American_internment) of 100,000 Japanese American (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_American) civilians. Unemployment dropped to 2%, relief programs largely ended, and the industrial economy grew rapidly to new heights as millions of people moved to new jobs in war centers, and 16 million men and 300,000 women were drafted or volunteered for military service. Roosevelt dominated the American political scene not only during the twelve years of his presidency, but also for decades afterward. He orchestrated the realignment (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_realignment) of voters that created theFifth Party System (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fifth_Party_System). FDR's New Deal Coalition (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Deal_Coalition) united labor unions, big city machines, white ethnics, African Americans and rural white Southerners. Roosevelt's diplomatic impact also resonated on the world stage long after his death, with the United Nations (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations) and Bretton Woods (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bretton_Woods_system) as examples of his administration's wide-ranging impact. Roosevelt is consistently rated by scholars as one of the top three U.S. Presidents (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historical_rankings_of_United_States_Presidents). A liberal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modern_liberalism_in_the_United_States) and a Democrat (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Democratic_Party_(United_States)), Roosevelt defined his ideological position as "a little left of center".[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt#cite_note-1)
                2. USSR
                  1. Joseph Stalin

                    Annotations:

                    • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/16/Stalin_lg_zlx1.jpg] Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin  (18 December 1878[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#cite_note-dob-0) – 5 March 1953) was the Premier of the Soviet Union (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Premier_of_the_Soviet_Union) from 6 May 1941 until his death in 5 March 1953. Among the Bolshevik (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bolshevik) revolutionaries who brought about the Russian Revolution (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian_Revolution) in 1917, Stalin held the position of General Secretary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_Secretary_of_the_Communist_Party_of_the_Soviet_Union#List_of_General_Secretaries) of the party's Central Committee (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Central_Committee_of_the_Communist_Party_of_the_Soviet_Union) from 1922 until his death. While the office was initially not highly regarded, Stalin used it to consolidate more power after the death of Vladimir Lenin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Lenin) in 1924, gradually putting down all opposition. This included Leon Trotsky (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Trotsky), the principal critic of Stalin among the early Soviet leaders. Whereas Trotsky advocated world permanent revolution (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permanent_revolution), Stalin's concept of socialism in one country (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialism_in_one_country) became primary policy as he emerged the leader of the Soviet Union. In 1928, Stalin replaced the decade's New Economic Policy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Economic_Policy) with a highly centralised command economy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Command_economy) and Five-Year Plans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five-Year_Plans_for_the_National_Economy_of_the_Soviet_Union), launching a period of industrialization and collectivization in the countryside (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collectivization_in_the_Soviet_Union). As a result, the USSR was rapidly transformed from an agrarian society into an industrial power, the basis for its emergence as the world's second largest economy after World War II.[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#cite_note-1) However, the rapid changes saw millions of people sent to correctional labour camps (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulag),[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#cite_note-Getty-2) and deported and exiled (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_transfer_in_the_Soviet_Union) to remote areas of the Soviet Union.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#cite_note-Getty-2) The initial upheaval in agriculture disrupted food production and contributed to the catastrophic Soviet famine of 1932–1933 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_famine_of_1932%E2%80%931933). In 1937–38, a campaign against alleged enemies of the Stalinist regime culminated in theGreat Purge (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Purge), a period of mass repression against the population in which hundreds of thousands of people were executed. Major figures in the Communist Party such as Trotsky and Red Army leaders (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Case_of_Trotskyist_Anti-Soviet_Military_Organization), were killed, convicted of participating in plots to overthrow the Soviet government and Stalin.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#cite_note-3) In August 1939, after Stalin's attempts to establish an Anglo-Franco-Soviet Alliance failed,[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#cite_note-carley-4) Stalin entered into a pact with Nazi Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Molotov-Ribbentrop_Pact) that divided their influence in Eastern Europe and allowed the USSR to regain some of its lost territories. Germany violated the pact by invading the Soviet Union (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Barbarossa) in 1941, opening the bloodiest theatre of war in history, the Eastern Front (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Front_(World_War_II)). The Soviet Union joined the Allies (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allies_(World_War_II)) and despite heavy human and territorial losses in the initial period of war, it stopped the Axis advance in the decisive battles of Moscow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Moscow) and Stalingrad (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Stalingrad). Eventually, the Red Army drove through Eastern Europe and captured Berlin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Berlin) in May 1945. Having played a decisive role in the Allied victory against Germany,[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#cite_note-5)[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#cite_note-6) the USSR emerged as a recognized superpower after the war.[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#cite_note-7) Stalin attended the delegations at the Yalta (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yalta_Conference) and Potsdam Conferences (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potsdam_Conference), which drew the map of post-war Europe. State communist governments loyal to the Soviet Union were installed in the Eastern Bloc (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Bloc), as satellite states (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Satellite_states). Stalin intended these to be a buffer in case of another war, as the USSR was beginning to enter a struggle for global dominance (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War) with the Western world (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Western_world). In Asia, Stalin fostered relations with Mao Zedong (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mao_Zedong) in China (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China) and Kim Il-sung (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kim_Il-sung) in North Korea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Korea), and his rule served as a model for their newly formed respective governments. In power until his death in 1953, Stalin led the USSR during the period of post-war reconstruction, marked by the dominance of Stalinist architecture (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stalinist_architecture). The successful development of the Soviet nuclear program (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_nuclear_program) enabled the country to become the world's second nuclear weapons power (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia_and_weapons_of_mass_destruction); the later Soviet space program (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_space_program) began as a spin-off of the nuclear project. Stalin also launched theGreat Construction Projects of Communism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Construction_Projects_of_Communism) and the Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Plan_for_the_Transformation_of_Nature). Stalin and his regime have been condemned on numerous occasions, the most significant being the in 1956 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/20th_Congress_of_the_Communist_Party_of_the_Soviet_Union), when Stalin's successor Nikita Khrushchev (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikita_Khrushchev) denounced his legacy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On_the_Personality_Cult_and_its_Consequences) and initiated a process of de-Stalinization (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/De-Stalinization). Modern views of Stalin in the Russian Federation and the world remain mixed, with some viewing him as a tyrant and mass murderer,[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#cite_note-How_Russia_faced_its_dark_past-8) others as a capable and necessary leader for the time.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_Stalin#cite_note-reuters.com-9)
                3. Axis
                  1. Germany
                    1. Adolf Hitler

                      Annotations:

                      • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-S33882%2C_Adolf_Hitler_retouched.jpg] Adolf Hitler (German: [?ad?lf ?h?tl?] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:IPA_for_German) ( [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/21/Speaker_Icon.svg/13px-Speaker_Icon.svg.png] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:De-at-Adolf_Hitler.ogg) listen (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/De-at-Adolf_Hitler.ogg)); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austria%E2%80%93Hungary)-born German (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germans) politician and the leader of the Nazi Party (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Party) (German (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_language): Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP); National Socialist German Workers Party). Hitler was chancellor of Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chancellor_of_Germany#Chancellor_of_the_Third_Reich_.281933.E2.80.931945.29) from 1933 to 1945 and dictator (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dictator) of Nazi Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany) (as Führer und Reichskanzler (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F%C3%BChrer)) from 1934 to 1945. He was at the centre of the founding of Nazism, the start of World War II (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II), and the Holocaust (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Holocaust). A decorated veteran of World War I (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I), Hitler joined the German Workers' Party (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Workers%27_Party), precursor of the Nazi Party, in 1919, and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted a coup d'état (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coup_d%27%C3%A9tat), known as the Beer Hall Putsch (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beer_Hall_Putsch), in Munich. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment, during which time he wrote his memoir, Mein Kampf (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mein_Kampf) (My Struggle). After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_Versailles) and promoting Pan-Germanism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pan-Germanism), anti-semitism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antisemitism), and anti-communism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-communism) with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_propaganda). After his appointment as chancellor in 1933, he transformed the Weimar Republic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Weimar_Republic) into the Third Reich (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany), a single-party (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-party_state) dictatorship based on the totalitarian (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Totalitarianism) and autocratic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autocratic) ideology of Nazism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazism). His aim was to establish a New Order (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Order_(Nazism)) of absolute Nazi German hegemony (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hegemony) in continental Europe. Hitler's foreign and domestic policies had the goal of seizing Lebensraum (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lebensraum) ("living space") for the Germanic people (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazism_and_race). He directed the rearmament of Germany and the invasion of Poland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Invasion_of_Poland) by theWehrmacht (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wehrmacht) in September 1939, resulting in the outbreak of World War II in Europe (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Theatre_of_World_War_II). Under Hitler's rule, in 1941 German forces and their European allies (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers) occupied most of Europe and North Africa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_African_Campaign). By 1943, Hitler's military decisions led to escalating defeats. In 1945 the Allied armies (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allies_of_World_War_II) successfully invaded Germany. Hitler's supremacist and racially motivated (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supremacism#Racial) policies resulted in the systematic murder of eleven million people, including an estimated six million Jews (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jew), and in the deaths of between 50 and 70 million people in World War II. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Berlin) in 1945, Hitler married his long-time mistress, Eva Braun (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eva_Braun). On 30 April 1945, less than two days later, the two committed suicide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Death_of_Adolf_Hitler) to avoid capture by the Red Army (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_Army), and their corpses were burned.
                      1. Joseph Goebbels

                        Annotations:

                        • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/35/Bundesarchiv_Bild_146-1968-101-20A%2C_Joseph_Goebbels.jpg]  Paul Joseph Goebbels (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Paul_Joseph_Goebbels.ogg)  (October 1897 – 1 May 1945) was a German (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germans) politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministry_of_Public_Enlightenment_and_Propaganda) in Nazi Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany) from 1933 to 1945. As one of Adolf Hitler (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler)'s closest associates and most devout followers, he was known for his zealous orations (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_speaking) and anti-Semitism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antisemitism). Goebbels earned a Ph.D. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ph.D.) from Heidelberg University (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heidelberg_University) in 1921, writing his doctoral thesis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctoral_thesis) on 19th century romantic drama; he then went on to work as a journalist and later a bank clerk and caller on the stock exchange. He also wrote novels and plays, which were rejected by publishers. Goebbels came into contact with the National Socialist German Worker's Party (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Socialist_German_Worker%27s_Party) (NSDAP) or Nazi Party in 1923 during the French occupation of the Ruhr (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Occupation_of_the_Ruhr) and became a member in 1924. He was appointed Gauleiter (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gauleiter) (regional party leader) of Berlin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin). In this position, he put his propaganda skills to full use, combating the Social Democratic Party of Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_Democratic_Party_of_Germany) and Communist Party of Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communist_Party_of_Germany) and seeking to gain their working class (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Working_class) supporters. Goebbels hatedcapitalism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capitalism), viewing it as having Jews (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jews) at its core, and he stressed the need for the Nazis to emphasize both a proletarian (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proletariat) and national character.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goebbels#cite_note-2) By 1928, he had risen in the party ranks to become one of its most prominent members. Goebbels rose to power in 1933 along with Hitler and the Nazi Party and he was appointed Propaganda Minister. One of his first acts was the burning of books (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_book_burnings). He exerted totalitarian control over the media, arts and information in Germany. From the beginning of his tenure, Goebbels organized attacks on German Jews, commencing with the one-day boycott of Jewish businessmen, doctors, and lawyers[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goebbels#cite_note-3) on April 1, 1933.[5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goebbels#cite_note-4)His attacks on the Jewish population culminated in the Kristallnacht (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kristallnacht) assault of 1938, an open and unrestrained pogrom (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pogrom) unleashed by the Nazis all across Germany, in which scores ofsynagogues (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synagogue) were burned and hundreds of Jews were assaulted and murdered.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goebbels#cite_note-5) Further, he produced a series of anti-Semitic films (most notably Jud Süß (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jud_S%C3%BC%C3%9F_(1940_film))). Goebbels used modernpropaganda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_propaganda) techniques to ideologically prepare the German people for aggressive warfare. During World War II (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II), Goebbels increased his power and influence through shifting alliances with other Nazi leaders. By late 1943, the tide of the war was turning against the Axis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axis_powers_of_World_War_II) powers, but this only spurred Goebbels to intensify the propaganda by urging the Germans to accept the idea of total war (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Total_war) and mobilization. Goebbels remained with Hitler in Berlin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin) to the end. After Hitler's suicide, Goebbels succeeded him as Chancellor. Goebbels along with his wife Magda (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magda_Goebbels) killed their six young children (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goebbels_children) and then committed suicide. The couple's bodies were burned in a shell crater, but owing to the lack of petrol the burning was only partly effective.
                        1. Hermann Göring

                          Annotations:

                          • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/2/2c/Goering1932.jpg] Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering ;12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946), was a German politician, military leader, and leading member of theNazi Party (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Party) (NSDAP). A veteran of World War I as an ace (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flying_aces) fighter pilot, he was a recipient of the coveted Pour le Mérite (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pour_le_M%C3%A9rite), also known as "the Blue Max". He was the last commander ofJagdgeschwader 1 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jagdgeschwader_1_(World_War_I)), the fighter wing once led by Manfred von Richthofen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manfred_von_Richthofen), "the Red Baron". A member of the NSDAP from its early days, Göring was wounded in 1923 during the failed coup known as the Beer Hall Putsch (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beer_Hall_Putsch). He suffered from a lifelong addiction to morphine after being treated with the drug for his injuries. He founded the Gestapo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gestapo) in 1933. Göring was appointed commander-in-chief of the Luftwaffe (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luftwaffe) (air force) in 1935, a position he held until the final days of World War II. By 1940 he was at the peak of his power and influence; as minister in charge of the Four Year Plan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Four_Year_Plan), he was responsible for much of the functioning of the German economy in the build-up to World War II. Adolf Hitler (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler) promoted him to the rank of Reichsmarschall (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichsmarschall), a rank senior to all other Wehrmacht (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wehrmacht) commanders, and in 1941 Hitler designated him as his successor and deputy in all his offices. Göring's standing with Hitler was greatly reduced by 1942, with the air force unable to fulfill its commitments and the German war effort stumbling on both fronts. Göring largely withdrew from the military and political scene and focused on the acquisition of property and artwork, much of which was confiscated from Jewish victims of the Holocaust (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Holocaust). Informed on 22 April 1945 that Hitler intended to commit suicide, Göring sent a telegram to Hitler (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%B6ring_Telegram) asking to assume control of the Reich. Hitler then removed Göring from all his positions, expelled him from the party, and ordered his arrest. After World War II, Göring was convicted of war crimes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_crime) and crimes against humanity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crimes_against_humanity) at the Nuremberg Trials (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuremberg_Trials). He was sentenced to death by hanging, but committed suicide by ingesting cyanide (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanide_poisoning) the night before the sentence was to be carried out.
                          1. Heinrich Himmler
                          2. Italy
                            1. Benito Mussolini

                              Annotations:

                              • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/67/Mussolini_biografia.jpg] Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini ( 29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Fascist_Party), ruling the country from 1922 to his ousting in 1943, and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of fascism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascism). Originally a member of the Italian Socialist Party (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Socialist_Party) and editor of the Avanti! (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avanti!_(Italian_newspaper)) from 1912 to 1914, Mussolini fought in World War I (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_I) as an ardent nationalist and created the Fasci di Combattimento (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fasci_di_Combattimento)in 1919, catalyzing his nationalist and socialist beliefs in the Fascist Manifesto (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascist_Manifesto), published in 1921. Following the March on Rome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/March_on_Rome) in October 1922 he became the 27th (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Prime_Ministers_of_Italy) Prime Minister of Italy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prime_Minister_of_Italy)and began using the title Il Duce (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duce) by 1925, about which time he had established dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means, aspiring to create a totalitarian (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Totalitarian) state. After 1936, his official title was Sua Eccellenza Benito Mussolini, Capo del Governo, Duce del Fascismo e Fondatore dell'Impero ("His Excellency Benito Mussolini, Head of Government, Duce of Fascism, and Founder of the Empire")[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mussolini#cite_note-1) Mussolini also created and held the supreme military rank of First Marshal of the Empire (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Marshal_of_the_Empire) along with King Victor Emmanuel III (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Victor_Emmanuel_III_of_Italy), which gave him and the King joint supreme control over the military of Italy. Mussolini remained in power until he was replaced in 1943; he remained the leader of the Italian Social Republic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Social_Republic) until his death in 1945. Mussolini was among the founders of Italian Fascism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Fascism), which was essentially a collection of academic nonsense (http://www.worldfuturefund.org/wffmaster/Reading/Germany/mussolini.htm) to give Mussolini and his thugs an excuse to takeover and misrule Italy. Among the domestic achievements of Mussolini from the years 1924–1939 were: his public works (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_works) programs such as the inordinatey expensive and ultimately unsuccessful attempt (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontine_marshes#Bonifica_integrale) to drain the Pontine Marshes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pontine_Marshes), the improvement of job opportunities, the public transport, and the so-called Italian economic battles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_economic_battles). Mussolini also solved the Roman Question (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Question) by concluding theLateran Treaty (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lateran_Treaty) between the Kingdom of Italy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Italy) and the Holy See (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_See). Mussolini and the Fascist regime initiated an aggressive campaign to destroy the Sicilian mafia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_mafia) with mass arrests and mass trials (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicilian_mafia#Fascist_suppression) of mafiosi.[3] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mussolini#cite_note-2) Mussolini was unable to purge Sicily of the mafia, because the mafia utilized its strong base of supporters to hide and protect itself as an underground movement during Fascist rule in Italy.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mussolini#cite_note-3) Since 1939, Mussolini had sought to delay a major war in Europe until at least 1942 for the following reasons: The army needed to substitute its outdated medium and large caliber guns with modern ones; Italian East Africa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_East_Africa) needed to be pacified so that a colonial army could be drafted there; the navy needed time to complete construction or refurbishing of six battleships; the 1942 planned world exposition in Rome had to be held in order raise foreign currency reserves; the Italians emigrants in France had to be repatriated for "military and ethical reasons". [5] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mussolini#cite_note-4) However, Germany invaded Poland on the first day of September in 1939, starting World War II (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II). On 10 June 1940, Mussolini led Italy into the calamity of siding with Germany. Mussolini was aware that Italy did not have the military capacity in 1940 to carry out a long war with France (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France) and the United Kingdom (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom).[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mussolini#cite_note-MacGregor_Knox_1999._Pp._122-123-5) Therefore, he had waited until the former was on the verge of imminent collapse because of the German invasion before declaring war on France and the United Kingdom, He had mistakenly concluded that following France's collapse the war would be short-lived. He believed that peace negotiations would take place shortly after France fell.[6] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mussolini#cite_note-MacGregor_Knox_1999._Pp._122-123-5) Mussolini believed that after the imminent French surrender, Italy could gain territorial concessions from France and then he could concentrate his forces on a major offensive in Egypt, where British and Commonwealth forces were outnumbered by Italian forces.[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mussolini#cite_note-6) However the UK refused to accept German proposals for a peace that would involve accepting Germany's victories in Eastern and Western Europe, plans for a German invasion of the UK did not proceed, and the war continued. On 24 July 1943, soon after the start of the Allied invasion of Italy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allied_invasion_of_Italy), through the Ordine del giorno Grandi (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dino_Grandi) Mussolini was defeated in the vote at the Grand Council of Fascism (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Council_of_Fascism), and the day after the King had him arrested. On 12 September 1943, Mussolini was rescued from prison in the daring Gran Sasso raid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gran_Sasso_raid) by German (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany) special forces (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_forces). Following his rescue, Mussolini headed theItalian Social Republic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_Social_Republic) in parts of Italy that were not occupied by Allied forces. In late April 1945, with total defeat looming, Mussolini attempted to escape north,[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mussolini#cite_note-7) only to be quickly captured and summarily executed (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Summary_execution) near Lake Como (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Como) by Italian partisans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_partisans). His body was then taken to Milan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milan) where it was hung upside down at a petrol station for public viewing and to provide confirmation of his demise.[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mussolini#cite_note-8)
                            2. Japan
                              1. Emperor Hirohito

                                Annotations:

                                • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Hirohito_in_dress_uniform.jpg] Hirohito (??? (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:Installing_Japanese_character_sets)), posthumously in Japan officially called Emperor Sh?wa (???? Sh?wa-tenn?? (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Help:Installing_Japanese_character_sets), April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_of_Japan) according to thetraditional order (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Emperors_of_Japan), reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. Although better known outside of Japan by his personal name Hirohito, in Japan he is now referred to primarily by hisposthumous name (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Posthumous_name) Emperor Sh?wa. The word Sh?wa is the name of the era (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sh%C5%8Dwa_period) that corresponded with the Emperor's reign, and was made the Emperor's own name upon his death.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hirohito#cite_note-0) The name ?? means "abundant benevolence". At the start of his reign, Japan was already one of the great powers (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_power) — the ninth largest economy in the world (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_regions_by_past_GDP_(PPP)) after Italy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy), the third largest naval country (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington_Naval_Treaty), and one of the five permanent members of the council of the League of Nations (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/League_of_Nations). He was the head of state (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Head_of_state) under the limitation of the Constitution of the Empire of Japan (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Meiji_Constitution) during Japan's imperial expansion, militarization, and involvement in World War II (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II). After the war, he was not prosecuted for war crimes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_war_crimes) as many other leading government figures were. During the postwar period (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Postwar_Japan), he became the symbol of the new state and Japan's recovery, and by the end of his reign, Japan had emerged as the world's second largest economy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_regions_by_past_GDP_(PPP)).
                          3. Key terms
                            1. Anschluss

                              Annotations:

                              • A political belief that all German speaking people should be united under one country. This led to Austria being joined to Germany
                              1. Blitzkrieg

                                Annotations:

                                • Literally “lightning war,” the term for Hitler’s invasion strategy of attacking a nation suddenly and with overwhelming force
                                1. Appeasement

                                  Annotations:

                                  • The British and French policy of conceding to Adolf Hitler’s territorial demands prior to the outbreak of World War II. Associated primarily with British prime minister Neville Chamberlain, the appeasement policy enabled Hitler to systematically take over the territories of several neighboring countries.
                                  1. Fascism

                                    Annotations:

                                    • A system of government dominated by far-right-wing forces and generally commanded by a single dictator
                                    1. “Final Solution”

                                      Annotations:

                                      • A term  used for the extermination of the Jews of Germany and other German-controlled territories during World War II. The term was used at the Wannsee Conference of January 1942, in which Nazi leaders planned the Holocaust. By the end of the war 6 million jew were dead and any millions of other  minority groups 
                                      1. Gestapo

                                        Annotations:

                                        • Nazi Secret Police
                                        1. Luftwaffe

                                          Annotations:

                                          • The German air force
                                          1. Manhattan Project

                                            Annotations:

                                            • The code name for the U.S. government’s secret program to develop an atomic bomb. Oppenheimer, one of the projects architects, said when he saw the first detonation that it brought to mind words from the Bhagavad Gita (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhagavad_Gita): "Now, I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds." (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Robert_Oppenheimer#cite_note-quote-9) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J._Robert_Oppenheimer
                                            1. Munich Agreement

                                              Annotations:

                                              • A September 30, 1938, agreement among Germany, Britain, Italy, and France that allowed Germany to annex the region of western Czechoslovakia called the Sudetenland. The Munich Agreement was the most famous example of British prime minister Neville Chamberlain’s policy ofappeasement prior to World War II.
                                              1. S.S.

                                                Annotations:

                                                • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Schutzstaffel_Abzeichen.svg]   The Schutzstaffel  translated to Protection Squadron or defence corps, abbreviated SS—or  [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/39/Schutzstaffel_SS_SVG1.1.svg/16px-Schutzstaffel_SS_SVG1.1.svg.png] (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=File:Schutzstaffel_SS_SVG1.1.svg&page=1) with stylized "Armanen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armanen_runes)" sig runes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sig_(rune)) was a major paramilitary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paramilitary) organization under Adolf Hitler (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler) and the Nazi Party (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Party) (NSDAP). Built upon the Nazi (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazism) ideology, the SS under Heinrich Himmler (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Himmler)'s command was responsible for many of the crimes against humanity (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crimes_against_humanity) during World War II (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II) (1939–1945). After 1945, the SS was banned in Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany), along with the Nazi Party, as a criminal organization. The SS began as a small permanent guard unit made up of NSDAP volunteers to provide security for Nazi Party meetings in Munich. Formed at the end of 1920, they were known as the "Saal-Schutz" (Hall-Protection).[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ss#cite_note-0) Later under the leadership of Heinrich Himmler (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heinrich_Himmler) between 1929 and 1945, the SS was renamed the "Schutz-Staffel" and grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the largest and most powerful organizations in the Third Reich (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany).[2] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ss#cite_note-1)
                                                1. Lebensraum

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • Literally “living space,” Adolf Hitler’s justification for Germany’s aggressive territorial conquests in the late 1930s. Based on the work of a previous German ethnographer, Hitler used the idea of lebensraum to claim that the German people’s “natural” territory extended beyond the current borders of Germany and that Germany therefore needed to acquire additional territory in Europe.
                                                2. Key Battles
                                                  1. Fall of France

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/34/Battle_of_France_collage.jpg]   In the Second World War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II), the Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the successful German invasion of France (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/France) and the Low Countries (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_Countries), beginning on 10 May 1940, defeating primarily French forces. The battle consisted of two main operations. In the first, Fall Gelb (Case Yellow), German armoured units pushed through the Ardennes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ardennes), to cut off and surround the Allied (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allies_of_World_War_II) units that had advanced into Belgium. When the French and British were pushed back to the sea by the fast moving and well organised German operation, the British government decided to evacuate their British Expeditionary Force (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Expeditionary_Force_(World_War_II)) (BEF) along with several French divisions at Dunkirk (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Dunkirk) in Operation Dynamo (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Dynamo). When France was left to fend for itself after the British evacuation, Germany launched a second operation, Fall Rot (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fall_Rot) (Case Red), which was commenced on 5 June and left the French government indecisive on the best course of action. Only part of the French forces were mobilised and the government was divided on the best course of action since many politicians wanted peace with Germany. Under the cover of the political turmoil in Paris, German forces outflanked (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flanking_maneuver) the Maginot Line (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maginot_Line) and pushed deep into France with little resistance. German forces subsequently arrived in Paris on 14 June and met with French officials seeking an alliance with Germany. This alliance was led by Marshal Philippe Pétain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippe_P%C3%A9tain) who, against the wishes of many Frenchmen, publicly announced his desire for an armistice (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armistice) with Germany. On 22 June, an armistice was signed (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Armistice_at_Compi%C3%A8gne) between France and Germany, which resulted in the division of France whereby Germany would control the north and west, a small Italian occupation zone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italian_occupation_of_France_during_World_War_II) in the southeast, and an unoccupied zone, the zone libre (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zone_libre) was to be run by Marshall Philippe Petain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philippe_Petain) himself under the newly formed Vichy government (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vichy_France). France remained under Axis control until after the Allied landings (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Normandy_Landings) in 1944.
                                                    1. Battle of Britain

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • [Image: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_FKJB4vOb9r0/TDmNVP458HI/AAAAAAAAC-E/WzalAs_rBD4/s1600/battle-of-britain-1%5B1%5D.jpg]   The Battle of Britain (German: Luftschlacht um England or Luftschlacht um Großbritannien, literally "Air battle for England" or "Air battle for Great Britain") is the name given to the Second World War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_World_War) air campaign waged by the German Air Force (Luftwaffe (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luftwaffe)) against the United Kingdom during the summer and autumn of 1940. The objective of the campaign was to gain air superiority (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_superiority) over the Royal Air Force (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Air_Force) (RAF), especially Fighter Command (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RAF_Fighter_Command). The name derives from a famous speech (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/This_was_their_finest_hour) delivered by Prime Minister Winston Churchill (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winston_Churchill) in the House of Commons (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Commons_of_the_United_Kingdom): "…the Battle of France (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_France) is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin."[14] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_britain#cite_note-22)[15] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_britain#cite_note-23) The Battle of Britain was the first major campaign to be fought entirely by air forces,[16] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_britain#cite_note-24) and was also the largest and most sustained aerial bombing campaign to that date. From July 1940, coastal shipping convoys and shipping centres, such as Portsmouth (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portsmouth), were the main targets; one month later the Luftwaffe shifted its attacks to RAF airfields and infrastructure. As the battle progressed the Luftwaffe also targeted aircraft factories (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II_aircraft_production) and ground infrastructure (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrastructure). Eventually the Luftwaffe resorted to attacking areas of political significance and using terror bombing tactics (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terror_bombing).[nb 10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_britain#cite_note-26) The failure of Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany) to achieve its objectives of destroying Britain's air defences (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_defence), or forcing Britain to negotiate an armistice (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armistice) or an outright surrender, is considered its first major defeat and a crucial turning point in the Second World War.[18] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_britain#cite_note-Bungay_2000.2C_p._388-27) By preventing Germany from gaining air superiority, the battle ended the threat that Hitler would launch Operation Sea Lion (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Sea_Lion), a proposed amphibious (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amphibious_assault) and airborne (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallschirmj%C3%A4ger_(Nazi_Germany)) invasion of Britain.
                                                      1. The Blitz

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • [Image: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b2/Stpaulsblitz.jpg] The Blitz (from German, "lightning") was the sustained strategic bombing (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strategic_bombing) of the United Kingdom (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Kingdom) by Germany (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_Germany) during the Second World War (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II). Between 7 September 1940 and 16 May 1941 there were major raids (attacks in which more than 100 tonnes of high explosives were dropped) on 16 British cities: the capital, London (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London), was attacked 71 times,Birmingham (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birmingham), Liverpool (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool) and Plymouth (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plymouth) eight times, Bristol (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol) six, Glasgow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow) five, Southampton (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southampton) four, Portsmouth (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portsmouth) three, and there was also at least one large raid on another eight cities.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Blitz#cite_note-FOOTNOTERoberts2011start_of_chapter_3-0) London was bombed by the Luftwaffe (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luftwaffe) for 57 consecutive nights.[7] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Blitz#cite_note-7) More than one million London houses were destroyed or damaged, and more than 40,000 civilians were killed, almost half of them in London.[4] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Blitz#cite_note-Richards_1954.2C_p._217.-4) Ports and industrial centres outside London were also heavily attacked; the major Atlantic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_Ocean) sea port of Liverpool (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool) was the most heavily bombed (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool_Blitz) city outside London, suffering nearly 4,000 dead.[8] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Blitz#cite_note-8)[9] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Blitz#cite_note-9) Other ports including Bristol (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bristol_Blitz), Cardiff (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiff_Blitz), Hull (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hull_Blitz), Plymouth (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plymouth_Blitz), Southampton (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southampton_Blitz) and Swansea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swansea_Blitz) were also targeted, as were the industrial cities of Birmingham (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Birmingham_Blitz), Belfast (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Belfast_Blitz), Coventry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coventry_Blitz), Glasgow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_Blitz) and Manchester (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manchester_Blitz). Birmingham and Coventry were heavily targeted because of the Spitfire (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supermarine_Spitfire) and tank (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tank) factories in Birmingham and the many munitions factories in Coventry; the city centre of Coventry was almost destroyed. The bombing did not achieve its intended goals of demoralising the British into surrender or significantly damaging their war economy.[10] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Blitz#cite_note-Cooper_1981.2C_p._174.-10) The eight months of bombing never seriously hampered British production, and the war industries continued to operate and expand.[11] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Blitz#cite_note-Cooper_1981.2C_p._173.-11) The Blitz did not facilitate Operation Sea Lion (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Sea_Lion), the planned German invasion of Britain. By May 1941 the threat of an invasion of Britain had passed, and Hitler's attention had turned to Operation Barbarossa (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Barbarossa) in the East. In comparison to the Allied bombing campaign against Germany, the Blitz resulted in relatively few casualties; the British bombing of Hamburg (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bombing_of_Hamburg) alone inflicted about 42,000 civilian casualties. Several reasons have been suggested for the failure of the German air offensive. The Luftwaffe High Command (Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oberkommando_der_Luftwaffe), or OKL) failed to develop a coherent long-term strategy for destroying Britain's war industries, frequently switching from bombing one type of industry to another without exerting any sustained pressure on any one of them. Neither was the Luftwaffe equipped to carry out a long-term strategic air campaign; it was not armed in depth, and its intelligence on British industry and capabilities was poor. All of these shortcomings denied the Luftwaffe the ability to make a strategic difference.
                                                        • The Blitz--German for Lightening-- was the 
                                                    2. Operation Barbarossa
                                                      1. Battle of Stalingrad
                                                      2. Operation Overlord

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • The code name for the Allied invasion of France: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Overlord 
                                                        1. D-day

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • June 6, 1944, the day on which the Allies invasion  of the Normandy coast began. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D_day
                                                          1. Retaking of Paris
                                                            1. Operation Market Garden
                                                              1. Battle of the Bulge
                                                                1. Battle of Berlin
                                                                  1. VE Day
                                                        2. Pearl Harbour

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • A day that shall live in infamy- Theodore Roosevelt, President of the USA Japanese launch a surprise attack on the USA at Pearl Harbour destroying numerous ships. The attack acts as a catalyst in bringing the USA into WW2 and the Allied declaration of war against Japan.  
                                                          1. Pacific War
                                                            1. Battle of Midway
                                                              1. Battle of Okinawa
                                                                1. Battle of Iwo Jima
                                                                  1. Hiroshima
                                                                    1. Nagasaki
                                                                      1. VJ Day
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