(5) Who has power within parties

Marcus  Danvers
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A level People and Politics (Political Parties) Mind Map on (5) Who has power within parties, created by Marcus Danvers on 02/12/2014.

Marcus  Danvers
Created by Marcus Danvers over 5 years ago
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(1) Political Ideologies
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Functions of a Political Party
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(5) Who has power within parties
1 Party leaders
1.1 In theory, Conservative leaders have greater authority than Labour leaders
1.1.1 Conservative leaders had few formal obstacles standing in there way
1.1.2 Labour leaders supposed to be bound by decisions made by annual confrences and National Executive Committe (NEC)
1.1.3 For practical purposes power lies with the patlimentary leaders who donminate the rest of the party
1.2 In the 1980s party leaders had grown in importants
1.2.1 In an age of political celebrity, their public profiles dominate those of senior colleagues and even of their parties
1.2.2 With the trends towards "presidentialism", leaders are expected to determine their parties' ideologicla direction and to deliver electoral success
1.3 However, they are by no means all-powerful
1.3.1 The fact that leaders act as a kind of "brand image" for their parties is a source of vulnerabelity as wellas strengh
1.3.2 There is a tenency for "failed" leaders to be removed or engouraged to stand down
1.3.3 The Conservatives have had no fewer than 4 leaders Since 1997 William Hague (1997-2001) Iain Duncan Smith (2001-2003) Michael Howard (2003-2005) David Cameron(2005)
2 Parliamentary parties
2.1 The popualr image of parliamentary parties is that, being subject to a system of party discipline, they are mere "lobby fodder"
2.1.1 Troops ready to be pushed through the division lobbies on the instructions of their leader
2.2 Trendes dating back to the 1970s suggest that MPs have generally become less deferntial and more independently minded
2.2.1 This refects the decline of party unity, which can lead to splits and divisions, which weaken the authority of the leader
2.2.2 Margarets Thatchers removal in 1990 demonstrates the ultimate power that parliamentary parties have over their leaders
2.2.3 Major's postion was seriously undermined by a series of backbench revolts, mainly over Europe
3 Members and constituency parties
3.1 The influence of constituency parties and party members is difficult to evuate
3.2 Falling membership and an association decline in the ranks of party activists suggest that constituency parties are becoming less
3.3 The growing tendency for the major parties to develop policy through policy committees, forums and task forces has generally strenghened the control that parliamenatry leaders exercise over policy development, while creating an impression of consultation and wider debate
3.3.1 In the Labour party such strategies have effectivly robbbed the party conference of its tradtional role
3.3.2 On the other hand, constituency Parties and ordinary members have retained their power in other respects
3.4 Conservative constituency associations have maintained a high degree of autonomy in the selection of parliamentary candidates
3.4.1 The demonstration of internal party democracy is in the role that individual party members now play in the election of party leaders
4 Party backers
4.1 Some argue that the real power within political parties lies not with people who have formal postions of influence, but with the people who fund the party, those who provide campaign and political finance
4.2 Labour has been affected controlled by the trade unions thatprovide the bulk of the partys funds
4.3 The Conservatives are similarly open to the allegations that their major business backers exert influence over the process of policy development
4.4 Recurrent charges of "cash or questions" and "cash for honours", have maintained the view that rich individuals can buy influence within parties
4.5 The Electoral Commission, which amongst other things, place limits on campaign spending and require the public disclosure of donationn over £5,000
4.6 Some argue, that only state funding can only properly address these issues

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