Electricity (mains and static)

Daniel Brener
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

IGCSE IGCSE Physics (Electricity) Mind Map on Electricity (mains and static), created by Daniel Brener on 04/23/2013.

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Daniel Brener
Created by Daniel Brener over 6 years ago
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Electricity (mains and static)
1 Mains electricity
1.1 P = IV
1.2 Energy Transferred = Current X Voltage X time
1.3 AC
1.3.1 Alternating Current
1.3.2 the current alternates between + and - typically (in the UK) at 50Hz
1.3.3 Examples
1.3.3.1 Mains electricity (UK)
1.3.3.2 Kettle
1.3.3.3 Iron
1.3.3.4 Tumble-Dryer
1.4 DC
1.4.1 Direct Current
1.4.2 the current is direct, it does not alternated between + and -
1.4.3 Examples
1.4.3.1 Torch
1.4.3.2 Laptop PC
1.4.3.3 Battery Alarm Clock
1.5 Hazards and Prevenetion
1.5.1 Residual Current Devices
1.5.1.1 senses for a difference in current at two places in the circuit, when there is a difference it breaks the circuit
1.5.2 Fuse
1.5.2.1 when too high a current passes through it, it heats up melts breaking the circuit
1.6 P = WD/t
1.6.1 or P = E/t
1.6.1.1 E being energy
1.7 Wiring A Plug
1.7.1 Live Wire
1.7.1.1 takes the current from the mains
1.7.1.2 covering coloured brown (UK)
1.7.2 Neutral Wire
1.7.2.1 completes the circuit
1.7.2.2 covering coloured blue (UK)
1.7.3 Earth Wire
1.7.3.1 safety wire to take a 'rogue' current to earth
1.7.3.2 usually for devices with metal cases
1.7.3.3 covering coloured yellow and green (UK)
2 Static electricity
2.1 conductors and insulators
2.2 Potential Dangers and Solutions
2.2.1 Aircraft Refuelling
2.3 Uses of Static Electricity
2.3.1 Photocopiers
2.3.2 Inkjet Printers
2.3.3 Industrial Chimneys
2.3.3.1 Electrostatic Precipeter
2.3.3.1.1 the dust particles from the chimney are negatively charged
2.3.3.1.1.1 there are anodes in the chimney which attract the negative dust particles with their positive charge
2.3.3.1.1.1.1 the particles cling to the anodes and are not released to the atmosphere
2.4 Examples of Electrostatic Phenomena
2.4.1 Lightening (see note)

Annotations:

  • Lighting occurs during atmospheric instability. So, in large air mass storms with many fast and complex updrafts and downdrafts the top of the storm is positively charged and the lower part is negatively charged. The surface/ground is positive. An electrostatic buildup occurs due to the collisions of very small ice particles and warmer pellets a bit like soft hail. The impact of the ice chrystal on the irregular surface generates a negative charge and the chrystal becomes positive. After period of time the electrostatic build up becomes so great that it has enough charge to "jump," to earth in the form of lightning. It can also occur surface-to-air, which is rare. Commonly though its air-to-air, between areas of the cloud.
2.4.2 Walking on a nylon carpet
2.4.2.1 as you walk on a nylon carpet free electrons rub of the carpet and onto you, thus you become negatively charged
2.4.2.1.1 a door handle would then be positively charged, when you touch it you will have an electrostatic shock as the free electrons spark to the handle

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