Sino-US rapproachement

Tom Lea
Mind Map by Tom Lea, updated more than 1 year ago
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A-Levels Cold War Mind Map on Sino-US rapproachement, created by Tom Lea on 05/22/2016.
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Resource summary

Sino-US rapproachement
1 Ping Pong Diplomacy
1.1 July '69
1.1.1 Trade & travel restrictions lifted by Nixon
1.1.2 PRC officially recognised by US
1.1.3 Secret dialogue through Pakistan
1.2 1971
1.2.1 April: US ping- pong team invited to China
1.2.2 July: Kissinger visits in secret - lay ground work for Nixon's '72 visit
1.2.3 October: US backs China's entry into UN
2 Causes
2.1 US motives
2.1.1 Vietnam
2.1.1.1 Nixon hoped to pressure VC into peace through China
2.1.1.2 Proved US military might not that effective
2.1.1.2.1 Therefore need for strategic alliamces
2.1.2 Use Sino-US relationship to pressure USSR into compromise
2.1.2.1 Change dynamics of Cold War - Triangular Diplomacy
2.1.2.1.1 Create stability - 3-way relationship rather than 2-way confrontation
2.1.2.1.2 Scare USSR = better US-USSR relations
2.1.2.1.3 Support China's independence - better for US than a Sino - Soviet pact
2.1.3 Feared Soviet invasion/annexation of China
2.1.4 Would allow all US Nuc. arsenal focus on USSR
2.2 Chinese motives
2.2.1 Sino-Soviet split
2.2.1.1 China lacks allies
2.2.1.1.1 Only has:France, Pakistan, Albania
2.2.1.1.2 Cult Rev (1966-76) - China cut diplomatic ties with most nations
2.2.1.2 Concerned Soviets may attack
2.2.1.3 Alliance with US would mean pressure on USSR to accept Chinese expansion on Soviet border
3 Nixon's visit to China 1972
3.1 Significant risk of failure but success in that good relationship established (Mao - Nixon)
3.2 Shanghai Communique (outcome of mtg)
3.2.1 Acknowledged diffs of opinion
3.2.1.1 Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan
3.2.2 Sino-US relationship to be based on Peaceful Coexistence
3.2.3 Aim - normalise relations by 1976 - establish dip links -
3.2.4 China & US to work together to resist domination of South East Asia by 'any country' ie USSR
3.2.5 US & China - increase trade & coop
4 Impact?
4.1 Signif shock to USSR - concerned would mean end to Detente (started in 69)
4.2 USSR need prep for 'war on two fronts'
4.2.1 US can focus all on USSR
4.3 Kick started Detente - Moscow Summit 1972: SALT I & Basic Principles Agreement
4.3.1 ABM treaty, Interim Agreement Offensive Missiles
4.3.2 BPA - 'ultimate objective... the achievement of general and complete disarmament'
4.4 After Nixon: Ford visits 1975 - no real impact but maintains positive relations
4.5 Trade increased $5million -$500million/yr
4.6 Chinese relations with N Vietnam and Albania were strained
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