Camila Osorio Casal
Mind Map by Camila Osorio Casal, updated more than 1 year ago
Camila Osorio Casal
Created by Camila Osorio Casal over 5 years ago


0 Phonetics and phonology Mind Map on INTONATION, created by Camila Osorio Casal on 05/22/2016.

Resource summary

  1. It's the melody of speech.
    1. It's partly universal but also partly language specific.
      1. Studies:
        1. How the pitch of the voice rises and falls.
          1. How speakers use this pitch variation to convey linguistic and pracmatic meaning.
            1. The rhythm of speech.
              1. How the interplay of accented, stressed and unstressed syllables functions
              2. Prosodic features:
                1. Characteristics of speech are those if spitch, loudness and speed.
                  1. These combine together to make up the rhythm of speech.
                  2. Stress: is realized by a combination of loudness, pitch and duration.
                    1. Tone: being realized mainly by differences in the pitch of the voice.
                    2. Speakers of english repeatedly face three types of decisions they speak.
                      1. Tonality: to decide is the devition of the spoken material into chunks.
                        1. TonIcity: to highlight some words as important for the meaning the hearer's attention.
                          1. Tone: the pitch movement the speaker is going to associate with tonicity.
                          2. Learners of english will tend to start by assuming that english is like their own first language.
                            1. They will TRANSFER the intonation habits of the L1 to L2.
                              1. Positive transfer: the elements of intonation are the same in English as in the L1.
                                1. Negative transfer: the elements of intonation are not use in the same way in English as in the L1.
                                2. The assumption that English is like students L1 leads to INTERFERENCE from the L1 as inappropriate elements are transferred
                                3. Functions of intonation
                                  1. Attitudinal
                                    1. Express our attitudes and emotions
                                      1. By tone
                                    2. Focusing
                                      1. Helps to show what information in a utterance is new and what is already known
                                        1. By tonicity
                                      2. Discourse
                                        1. Signals how sequences of clauses and sentences go together in spoken discourse, to contrast or to cohere
                                        2. Indexical
                                          1. Acts as a marker of personal or social identity
                                          2. Psychological
                                            1. Organizes speech into units that are easy to perceive, memorize and perform
                                              1. By tonality
                                            2. Grammatical
                                              1. To distinguish clause types
                                                1. By tone
                                                2. Helps to identify grammatical structures in speech
                                                  1. By tonality
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