S104 BOOK 1

Theresa Cleaver
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

GLOBAL WARMING

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Theresa Cleaver
Created by Theresa Cleaver over 5 years ago
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S104 BOOK 1
1 Global warming
1.1 ice shelf disintegration
1.2 sea level rise
1.2.1 0.09m - 0.88m by 2100
1.2.1.1 loss of land
1.2.1.1.1 very gradual
1.2.2 dominated by thermal expansion as water warms
1.2.3 ice sheets melting = sea level rise
1.2.3.1 ice shelves float = no change
1.2.3.2 ice to water vapour = sublimation
1.3 greenhouse effect
1.3.1 Greenhouse gases
1.3.1.1 CO2
1.3.1.1.1 main anthropogenic greenhouse gas
1.3.1.1.1.1 burning fossil fuels
1.3.1.2 H2O (g)
1.3.1.2.1 most abundant
1.3.1.2.2 precipitation
1.3.1.3 more gas = warmer
1.3.1.4 anthropogenic climate change
1.3.1.5 a gas that can absorb ir
1.3.1.5.1 only if molecule contains more than 2 atoms, or 2 different atoms
1.3.2 increase in temp caused by earth 'trapping' heat
1.3.3 atmosphere critical to effect
1.3.3.1 ir from surface, some absorbed by atmos, reemitted and some absorbed by surface
1.3.3.1.1 more absorbing to ir the atmosphere is the higher the GMST
1.3.3.1.1.1 infrared absorbtivity higher = more absorbed = higher GMST
2 Earth surface temperature
2.1 surface temp - not actually surface= just above
2.1.1 every day at set times
2.1.1.1 calculate mean
2.1.1.1.1 all the values added together then divided by number of results
2.2 30-year mean surface temp
2.2.1 30 year GMST
2.3 GMST
2.3.1 sum of all mean surface temp / number of locations
2.3.2 last 100 yrs warming
2.3.2.1 rate of increase
2.3.2.1.1 20000 years - 10oC
2.3.2.2 0.5oC /century
2.3.3 evidence from ancient organisms
2.3.3.1 vegetation inhabited region
2.3.3.1.1 fossils
2.3.3.1.2 pollen grains
2.3.3.1.2.1
2.3.3.1.3 lake bed silt
2.3.3.1.3.1 deeper sample - older
2.3.3.1.3.1.1 changes in proportion of pollen = changing climate
2.3.3.1.3.1.1.1 pollen diagram
2.3.4 glacial period
2.3.4.1 integlacial periods
2.3.4.1.1
2.3.4.2 ice age
2.3.5 Sun source of all energy
2.3.5.1 equal in and out energy transfer GMST constant
2.3.5.1.1 leaky tank model
2.3.5.1.1.1 steady state
2.3.5.1.2 GMST rises until rate of surface loss by surface equals rate of gain
2.3.5.1.3 if GMST vwere to rise total mass of water vapour in atmosphere would increase
2.3.6 15oC
2.4 urban heat island
3 uncertainties
3.1 quote as half a division on recording device i.e 0.5mm
3.2 experimental uncertainties
3.2.1 i.e. series of measurements over 2 minutes show range of values
3.2.1.1 random uncertainty
3.2.1.1.1 scattered fairly randomly around some mean value
3.2.1.1.2 one overall
3.2.1.1.3 can be estimated by repeating - spread of results indicate random uncertainty
3.2.1.1.4 PRECISE
3.2.2 systematic error
3.2.2.1 i.e thermometer scale out slightly
3.2.2.1.1 systematic uncertainty
3.2.2.1.1.1 ACCURATE
3.2.2.1.1.2 offset from 'true'
4 energy
4.1 Heat
4.2 SI unit of energy = joule J
4.2.1 cannot create or destroy
4.2.2 power is rate at which energy transfer takes place
4.2.2.1 power = energy transferred / time taken
4.2.2.1.1 rate of energy transfer
4.3 convection
4.3.1 conduction
4.3.1.1 saucepan of water on hot plate
4.3.1.1.1 water warms - increase in volume
4.3.1.1.1.1 thermal expansion
4.3.1.1.1.2 decreases density
4.3.1.1.1.2.1 rises up
4.3.2 enables more evaporation
4.3.2.1 requires energy
4.3.2.1.1 latent heat
4.3.2.1.1.1 no temp change
4.3.2.1.1.1.1 sweat from body surface cools
4.3.3 air heated by ground rises up, temp decreases, vapour condenses - clouds
4.3.3.1 higher temp, air holds more vapour
4.3.3.1.1 relative humidity
4.3.3.1.1.1 how saturated air is
4.3.3.2 latent heat
4.3.3.3 latent heat energy given out by condensation heats surrounding atmosphere
5 units and maths
5.1 speed m s -1
5.2 mass kg
5.3 ratio - no units
5.4 metric ton = 1000 kg
5.5 time s
5.6 distance m
5.7 area m2
5.8 always include units
5.9 graph
5.9.1 title
5.9.2 axis variable/unit
5.10 tables
5.10.1 units in header
5.11 scientific notion
5.11.1 1<>10
5.12 sig fig
5.12.1 certain + one digit
5.12.2 in sums answer uses least sig fig in qu
5.13 energy J
5.13.1 power = J s -1
5.13.1.1 also called W
5.14 density = mass/volume
5.14.1 kg m-3
5.15 pressure = pascal Pa
5.16 % = parts per hundred
5.16.1 %x1000000 =ppm
5.17 equations interchangealbe
5.17.1 coupling
6 solar radiation
6.1 light, visible radiation
6.2 ir
6.2.1 emitted by earth surface
6.2.1.1 atmosphere
6.2.1.1.1 re-emits energy from sun and surface
6.2.1.2 space
6.3 uv
6.4 solar luminosity
6.4.1 1 m2 intercepts 1370 W m2
6.4.1.1 solar constant
6.4.1.1.1 Atmosphere affects solar radiation
6.4.1.1.1.1 absorbtion - solar radiation converted to heat
6.4.1.1.1.2 scattering - redirection of radiation (clouds/aerosols good!)
6.4.1.1.1.2.1 all directions up and down!
6.4.1.1.1.3 reflection from surface - into space
6.4.1.1.1.3.1 ice and snow reflect most
6.4.1.1.1.3.2 oceans least
6.4.1.1.2 radiation reaching surface absorbed
6.4.1.1.2.1 higher surface temp!
6.4.1.1.3 20% absorbed atmosphere, 49% absorbed by surface,31% returns to space
6.4.1.1.3.1 mean rate returned to space = albedo
7 earths atmosphere
7.1 mixture of gases
7.1.1 molecules collide with each other
7.1.1.1 exert pressure
7.2 100km thick
7.2.1 below 10k troposphere
7.2.1.1 above stratosphere
7.2.1.2 fairly mixed gases/aerosols
7.3 n2 o2 ar h2o(g) co2
8 Water cycle
8.1 reservoir
8.1.1 oceans most
8.1.1.1 ice and snow next
8.2 precipitation
8.2.1 global mean annual precipitation = 1000mm
8.2.2 transpiration - roots, stem leaves atmosphere
9 feedback
9.1 inc in orig. leads to furth inc.
9.1.1 +ve feedback
9.2 inc in orig leads to decrease in orig
9.2.1 -ve feedback
10 carbon cycle
10.1 chemical basis for all life
10.1.1 organic carbon
10.1.1.1 forms lots of different chemical compounds
10.2 biogeochemical cycle
10.2.1 biological cycle
10.2.1.1 living things
10.2.1.2 atmosphere
10.2.1.3 soil
10.2.1.4 surface ocean
10.2.1.4.1 solar rad., mixes wind and wave
10.2.1.4.1.1 dissolved carbon
10.2.1.4.1.1.1 more in cold water
10.2.1.4.1.1.2 degassing
10.2.1.4.1.1.3 plankton
10.2.1.4.1.1.3.1 particulate carbon
10.2.1.4.1.1.3.1.1 some drops to deep ocean
10.2.1.4.1.1.3.1.1.1 link to geochemical cycle
10.2.1.4.1.1.3.1.1.1.1 biological pump
10.2.1.4.2 top 100-200m
10.2.1.5 short residence time
10.2.1.6
10.2.1.7 green plants = pump resp + photosy.
10.2.1.7.1 resp + photosy. = burning fossil fuels
10.2.1.7.2 decomposition
10.2.2 geochemical cycle
10.2.2.1 very long residence time
10.2.2.2 deep ocean
10.2.2.2.1 by 1km temp -1
10.2.2.2.2 upwelling + sinking
10.2.2.3 rock
10.2.2.3.1 volcanoes
10.2.2.4 sediment
10.2.2.4.1 lithification
10.2.2.4.1.1 sedimentary rock
10.2.2.4.1.1.1 uplifting and weathering
10.2.2.4.1.1.1.1 erosion
10.2.2.4.1.1.1.2 carried in streams etc
10.2.2.4.1.2 organic material - no oxygen - coal
10.2.2.4.1.2.1 burning releases the stored carbon
10.2.2.4.1.2.1.1 deforestation leads to less carbon taken out of atmosphere
10.2.2.5 linked
10.2.2.6 biological pump = leak between