MOST LIKELY TO COME UP ?

marriyah1123
Mind Map by marriyah1123, updated more than 1 year ago
marriyah1123
Created by marriyah1123 about 5 years ago
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A-Level Law Mind Map on MOST LIKELY TO COME UP ?, created by marriyah1123 on 09/06/2016.

Resource summary

MOST LIKELY TO COME UP ?
  1. SECULARISATION
    1. SEC IN THE UK
      1. SEC IN THE USA
        1. RMT
          1. EX SEC THEORY
            1. EXPLANATIONS
              1. POSTMODERNISM
              2. SUICIDE
                1. Durkheim: Argued that suicide is directly related to levels of integration in society; as a result he placed societies into 4 categories depending upon their levels of social integration: 1. Egoistic 2. Fatalistic 3. Altruistic 4. Anomic
                  1. Douglas: Suggested that those who commit suicide may define their in at least 4 ways: 1. Transforming oneself for others 2. Transforming the self 3. Achieving fellow feelings 4. Gaining revenge
                    1. Baecheler: He divides suicide into 4 categories: 1. Escapist suicide 2. Aggressive suicide 3. Oblative suicide 4. Ludic suicide
                    2. Atkinson: Argues that official statistics reflect the coroner’s decision rather than any reality and in order to make this decision the coroner must piece together certain clues, he claims the following are the most important: 1. Suicide notes 2. Mode of death 3. Location and circumstances 4. Life health and mental conditions
                      1. Taylor: Criticises Douglas and Baechler for failing to recognise the value of Dukheim’s work. He has suggested that Durkheim and his critics miss the significance of parasuicides (the person is not sure whether they want to live or die so they gamble their life) because in many cases the people who attempt to suicide don’t die. Parasuicides allow us to discuss suicide in terms of ‘risk taking’; he also supports Durkheim’s belief that suicide is more likely in individuals too detached from others in society (egoistic) and those over attached (altruistic).
                      2. LABELLING THEORY
                        1. SUBCULTURAL THEORY
                          1. Albert Cohen: Status frustration… Working class boys gain status from their peers by being good at delinquent behaviour such as stealing, fighting and vandalism.
                            1. Cloward and Ohlin: Working class boys belong to 3 subcultures; criminal, conflict and retreatist.
                              1. Nightingale: Black gangs in Philadelphia. They want to achieve the American Dream of having the latest consumer goods. However, they are excluded educationally, economically and politically from mainstream US culture, therefore are forced to gain them through crime.
                                1. Miller: Focal concerns - trouble, toughness, smartness, fate and excitement.
                                  1. Korem: Examines middle class gangs… 7 years of research in the UK and US... family problems push middle class boys to form gangs… family problems are better predictor than low incomes.
                                  2. Downes: Many working class boys ‘hung around’ together but were not in any sense an organised gang.
                                    1. Korem: Examines middle class gangs… 7 years of research in the UK and US... family problems push middle class boys to form gangs… family problems are better predictor than low incomes.
                                      1. Bennett and Holloway: Researched into UK gangs carried out… interviews with 5,000 arrestees and found the 15% had current past experiences as gang members.
                                      2. Thrasher: 1313 gangs in the US (1920). Only found 6 female gangs say that female gang activity is ‘auxiliary in nature’ (limited roles consist of social or sexual purposes).
                                        1. Laidler and Hunt: Interviewed 141 gangs although 'home girls' committed crimes they conformed to traditional gender roles. Had to ensure that they didn’t have sex with too many gang members.
                                        2. Matza: The drift theory suggesting that research on gangs is too deterministic and those offenders tend to drift in and out of crime. Subterranean values and techniques of neutralization.
                                        3. SOCIAL POLICY
                                          1. Lea and Young- Left Realism- used the results of local victim surveys to put forward a range of practical solutions to reduce crime. For example they have encouraged closer partnerships between the police and local communities.
                                            1. Betty Friedan- Liberal feminist- argues that sociologist should try to influence social policy as patriarchy can be changed gradually, through legislation.
                                              1. Townsend- Social Democratic approach- identified the extent and causes of poverty in the UK based on surveys of over 2000 households. He used the findings to put forward solutions such as more progressive taxation to fund more welfare for the poor.
                                              2. Giddens- Third Way- had major effect in shaping not only policy, but also ideology. Tony Blair’s ditching of Old Labour (socialism) and adopting the ‘Third Way’ was basically Giddens idea. ‘New’ labour policies such as a big push against poverty-minimum wage, working families Tax credit- a top up for low paid workers etc.
                                                1. Murray- New right- argues that providing generous welfare as a social policy solution for poverty actually makes the problem worse (as it creates a dangerous underclass). Welfare state gives ‘perverse incentives’, this weakens self-reliance and encourages a dependency culture.
                                                  1. Giddens- Identified three ways in which sociology relates to social policy. Sociology can inform policymakers of viewpoints other than their own i.e. cultural differences. Sociological research helps asses the results of policy initiatives. Lastly, sociology may generate greater self-understanding.
                                                    1. Bauman- Postmodernists- in ‘postmodern times’ sociologists would merely take the role of ‘interpreters’ and cannot, should not, be seen as ‘legislators’, as they did in ‘modernist times’.
                                                      1. Middleton et al- The economic and Social Research Council funded research, into pilot schemes to test which policies could be introduced to increase participation rates on post-16 education and reduce the number of young people not in education, employment or training. Due to their research, the EMA policy was therefore set up as a national policy in 2004. (the EMA fulfilled the policy objective)
                                                  2. Westergaard and Resler- Marxists- are against making social policy recommendations on welfare. Welfare ‘buys off’ the working class and prevents them from releasing their true class interests. Social problems faced by the working class can only be overcome through a proletarian revolution (not social policy).
                                                    1. Gregg et al- At the centre for Social Exclusion used a group of 6000 children born in and around Bristol in 1991 and 1992. The research considered various categories of development such as school performance self-esteem and IQ. The research proposed that policy interventions must recognise that the impact of income operates in different ways. A multifaceted approach is needed in policymaking.
                                                  3. VALUE FREEDOM
                                                    1. STRUCTURE V AGENCY
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