A2: Migration: Causes, Streams and Impacts (iv)

Rachel Campbell
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Mind Map on A2: Migration: Causes, Streams and Impacts (iv), created by Rachel Campbell on 02/23/2014.

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Rachel Campbell
Created by Rachel Campbell over 5 years ago
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A2: Migration: Causes, Streams and Impacts (iv)
1 Small-scale case study of OUT-MIGRATION: Barra & Vatersay
1.1 Factfile
1.1.1 Located on Outer Hebrides, off the West coast of Scotland
1.1.2 Has a mountainous centre - most settlements are found along the coast
1.1.3 Total pop. of 1172
1.1.4 Remote Island - transport links are few
1.1.4.1 Flights from Glasgow
1.1.4.2 5 hour ferry from Oban
1.1.4.3 40 min crossing from Eriskay to Barra
1.1.5 Main road around coast - 12km
1.1.6 An airport on north of island - beach serves as a runway
1.2 Implications on Service Provision
1.2.1 Small pop. - services are limited
1.2.2 Most services are low order + concentrated in Castlebay - "capital"
1.2.2.1 A primary school
1.2.2.2 3 small hotels
1.2.2.3 convenience store
1.2.2.4 petrol station
1.2.2.5 post office
1.2.2.6 doctors and dentist but no hospital
1.2.3 Gov. funding established the Barra community co-operative which setup a shop in Castlebay
1.3 Economic Activity
1.3.1 Few opps. for economically active age groups
1.3.2 Tourism generates seasonal jobs
1.3.3 Traditional opps. e.g. crofting + fishing employ an ever decreasing number of people
1.3.4 Jan>June 2001 unemployment fell in Barra from 5 - 3.4% due to the building of the Eroskay causeway Unemployment grew again after it was completed.
1.3.5 Gross weekly earnings are 12% lower then the Scottish average, whilst costs of fuel, food and transport can be up to 20% higher than the mainland
1.3.5.1 Continued depopulation
1.4 Social Stability
1.4.1 Small working pop. and those who left are unlikely to return with their families
1.4.2 Many 15+ year olds will leave when they reach working age
1.5 European Commission > critical threshold pop. of 4-5 1000 required for the island to be sustainable
2 Small-case case study of IN-MIGRATION: Delhi, India
2.1 Factfile
2.1.1 16M people in New Delhi
2.1.1.1 12,000 per hectare
2.1.2 4.1M in Shanties (jhuggies) along roads and railway lines
2.1.3 Squatter resettlement schemes caused urban area to spread outwards - 15km from New Delhi
2.1.4 Independence - massive pop. redistribution (500,000 people moved to Delhi in 2 months)
2.1.5 Rural > Urban internal migration
2.1.5.1 2001 - 11% urban dwellers by 2001 - 27.8%
2.2 Service Provision
2.2.1 Health + Sanitation
2.2.1.1 IMR = 183/1000
2.2.1.2 1534 toilets for 16M people
2.2.1.3 750 ppl. to 1 tap
2.2.1.4 125 ppl. to one latrine - crowded, dirty and distant - open spaces become waste lands
2.2.2 Education
2.2.2.1 9% of ppl. have higher education
2.2.2.2 56% have secondary education
2.2.2.3 4/5 slum children don't have education (esp. girls)
2.2.3 Air Quality
2.2.3.1 56% pollution from industry
2.2.3.2 21% from domestic
2.2.3.3 By 2001, 72% from traffic
2.2.3.4 60% of children suffer from asthma, lung disease is 12 times the average
2.2.4 Housing
2.2.4.1 2.4M people live in jhuggies in Delhi
2.2.4.1.1 Unauthorised colonies which are illegal, unregistered and lack services
2.2.4.2 Housing projects endeavour to improve housing, water supply and infrastructure
2.2.5 Traffic
2.2.5.1 Congestion is a major problem (1300 tonnes of emissions per day) killing several hundred each year
2.2.6 Waste
2.2.6.1 1kg of solid waste per person/per day
2.2.6.2 6000 tonnes of garbage daily
2.2.6.3 Landfill sites polluted and unsafe
2.2.6.4 2400M litres of water waste a day - 50% lost by poor pipes
2.3 Economic Activity
2.3.1 High unemployment
2.3.2 Large informal sector workforce
2.3.3 Children forced/needed for work
2.3.4 Garbage employment - stripped copper wires - 50 rupees a kilo
2.3.5 Living Standards
2.3.5.1 Poverty, malnutrition and homelessness is common
2.3.5.2 Low standard if living
2.4 Social Stability
2.4.1 Extended family living
2.4.2 Conflict for water supplies that arrive daily in tankers and are collected in cans
2.4.3 Migrants in construction live on land where buildings are being built - contractors not receive 25% of payment until labourers are cleared
2.4.4 In the new city, residential areas of the city are segregated according to race + occupation
2.4.5 Slum dwellers not considered to be citizens - they have no rights
2.4.6 High crime rates -gangsters in charge of politics - force people to vote
2.4.7 Women work whilst men sleep in the day

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