English SK

Rebecca Clarke6878
Mind Map by Rebecca Clarke6878, updated more than 1 year ago
Rebecca Clarke6878
Created by Rebecca Clarke6878 over 5 years ago
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Basic subject knowledge

Resource summary

English SK
  1. STANDARD ENGLISH
    1. SE is using certain grammar, vocab and spelling
      1. Spoken English is affected by historical, regional and individual variations.
        1. Dialect is the grammar and vocal of language spoken in a particular region
          1. Accent is the way words are pronounced
            1. Language register is how different words/grammatical formations are used defending on the situation
              1. Pedagogical:
                1. Children can recognise and practice SE and other dialects through speaking and listening tasks including drama.
        2. LANGUAGE ACQUISITION
          1. The 3 main theories of language acquisition are: The behaviourist account, the generative/innatist approach and the social interaction approach.
            1. B.F.Skinner = Behaviourist view
              1. Three part sequence = stimulus - response - reward
                1. Main criticism = Children produce utterances they've not heard adults say
              2. Naom Chomsy = Generative/Innatist approach
                1. Supported by LAD (language acquisition device)
                2. Motherese = Non-standard way that adults talk to children
                  1. Children need to experiment with language and be wrong because these are critical elements in learning language in the context of real dialogue.
                  2. Social/Interactive approach = Humans are programmed to communicate and can do so from birth. Language learnt through interaction
                    1. Supported by LASS (Language Acquisition Support System)
                3. REPRESENTING SOUND IN WRITING
                  1. Phonological awareness = Awareness of units of sound and how they work in speech
                    1. Syllable = A group of sounds that act as a unit of rhythm in speech
                      1. Onset = Consonant at the beginning of a syllable
                        1. Homophone = words that sound the same but have a different spelling or meaning
                        2. Rime = The remaining part of a syllable
                          1. Phoneme = Smallest unit of sound in a word
                            1. Morpheme = Smallest unit of meaning in a word
                              1. Phonics = Teaching children sound-symbol correspondences
                              2. 44 phonemes in English - 24 consonant and 20 vowel
                              3. Grapheme = A letter or group of letters representing a sound
                                1. Digraph = Two letter grapheme e.g. CH
                                  1. Trigraph - Three letter grapheme e.g air
                                    1. Split digraph = the 'e' at the end of words works with another letter to make a sound e.g. 'oo' in hope
                                    2. Blending = merging together of separate sounds in a word
                                      1. Segmenting = Breaking words into phonemes to spell
                                        1. Decode = to read words
                                          1. Encode = to spell words
                                1. GRAMMAR
                                  1. Grammatical knowledge puts children control of their use of language, it helps them in their attempts to communicate and makes them more effective language users.
                                    1. A sentence = A group of words containing a subject and predicate that can stand alone.
                                      1. Subject = What or whom the sentence is about
                                        1. Predicate = Tells us about the subject (verb)
                                          1. Object = Complete a verbs meaning
                                      2. Sentence functions = Question, command, statement, explanation
                                        1. Transitive verbs need require an object and intransitive verbs do not.
                                          1. Clause =A group of related words containing a subject and a verb.
                                            1. Phrase = A group of related words NOT containing a subject or verb
                                              1. Phrases = Noun phrase, prepositional phrase. adjectival phrase and adverbial phrase
                                      3. Cohesive references can be made to other parts of text:
                                        1. Anaphoric = refer back
                                          1. Cataphorical = Point forward
                                            1. Lexical cohesion = Where two words in a text are semantically related in terms of meaning
                                          2. PARTS OF A SENTENCE
                                            1. 8 main word classes = Nouns, Pronouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, Verbs, Determiners, Conjunctions, Prepositions
                                              1. 4 types of common nouns = concrete nouns, abstract, countable and incountable
                                                1. 'A and 'an'' = the indefinite article
                                                  1. 'The' = the definite article
                                                    1. 'Twenty' = cardinal number
                                                      1. Third = ordinal number
                                                      2. 3 types of conjunctions = co-ordinating, correlative and subordinating.
                                                      3. STORIES, POETRY AND DRAMA
                                                        1. Main stage of story structure = The opening, the inciting moment, the development, the denoument and the ending
                                                          1. Calligram = A poem where the size, shape and font of letters and their effects support its meaning
                                                            1. Narrative poem = Tells a story
                                                              1. Performance poem = Poem to be acted out
                                                                1. A Haiku = Japanese verse with 17 syllables over 3 lines
                                                                  1. A Couplet = Two consecutive lines linked by rhythm and whyme
                                                                  2. Shape poem = Appearance on page reflects theme
                                                                    1. Iambic pentameter = a rhythmical pattern with 5 metrical beats to the line (Shakespeare's plays)
                                                                      1. Four functions of drama in primary = Drama as a story, drama as an aid to learning, drama as a resource to moral education and drama as an aid to language and literacy development
                                                                        1. Pedagogical
                                                                          1. DRAMA - Puppets, Hot seating, Improvisation, Simulation, Tableaux (freeze frame)
                                                                          2. Stories: Satisfy curiosity, allow children to experience the world vicariously, improve literacy, increase common cultural awareness and provide pleasure
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