A3: Population Policies (i + ii)

Rachel Campbell
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Mind Map on A3: Population Policies (i + ii), created by Rachel Campbell on 02/23/2014.

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Rachel Campbell
Created by Rachel Campbell over 5 years ago
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A3: Population Policies (i + ii)
1 National Fertility Policy in CHINA
1.1 Factfile
1.1.1 pop. of 1.35 Billion
1.1.2 pop. growth rate = 0.5%
1.1.3 BR = 12.1% DR = 7%
1.1.4 IMR = 17% Male = 21% Female = 26%
1.1.5 LE = 73 M + 77F
1.1.6 TFR = 1.55
1.1.7 90% of people live in 10% of land near Beijing
1.2 Need for a fertility policy?
1.2.1 1949 - pop. of 500M - M's living in poverty - LE = 40
1.2.2 Resources do not match size ( 7% of world land - 9Mkm2)
1.2.3 Pop. growth would mean severe poverty and famine
1.2.4 China launched a series of reforms to utilise the resource base more fully and to establish China as a major world power
1.3 1. Great Leap Forward 1958
1.3.1 Mao - "more people, the stronger we are"
1.3.2 Industry could only prosper if the work force was well fed - while agriculture workers needed industry to produce modern tools needed
1.3.3 China was reformed into a number of communes (5000 families) - 1959 things went wrong!
1.3.4 Quickly produced farm machinery fell apart + workers injured
1.3.5 Less working in fields + flooding + drought in '59 - only 170M tons of grain - well below what they needed - starvation occured!
1.3.6 1960 was even worse - only 144M tonnes of grain - almost 30M people died of starvation + diseases relating to starvation
1.4 2. Early Anti-Natalist policies
1.4.1 Early 60's + 70's the gov. sought to reduce fertility
1.4.2 Education + advertising programmes highlighted the advantage of smaller families
1.4.3 Contraception and abortions more widely available
1.4.4 Later marriage encouraged and longer intervals between births
1.5 3. The One Child Policy
1.5.1 Mortality levels fallen and fertility decrease
1.5.2 China had resources for 1.2 B - if fertility feel to replacement level - pop. would continue to grow
1.5.3 Initially required to have one child and apply for official approval before conceiving
1.5.4 Compliance encouraged through rewards + punishments e.g. forced abortions + compulsory sterilisation
1.5.5 Rewards incl. educational opps. healthcare, housing and job security.
1.6 4. 1979-1983
1.6.1 Strictly enforced with no regard for individual circumstances
1.6.2 Reported cases of forced abortions and compulsory sterilisation
1.6.3 All aspects of family life were monitored - local ppl. encouraged to pass on info. about anyone disobeying
1.7 5. 1984-1988
1.7.1 Success prompted gov. to relax policy
1.7.2 Local officials would allow some families in rural areas to have a 2nd child as long as local quotas were maintained
1.8 6. 1989-1993
1.8.1 Late 1980's fertility increased again
1.8.2 Regulations tightened
1.9 7. 1994-present
1.9.1 still in operation but less strigently
1.9.2 Reduced fertility with increased affluence
1.9.3 After 30 years of anti-natalist policy, the Chinese have lost the desire for large families
1.10 Evaluation
1.10.1 Positive
1.10.1.1 Brought fertility levels down - 1960 = 6 2000= 1.7 - No longer facing overpopulation
1.10.1.2 Universal age of marriage rose - 1960 = 18 2000 = 22
1.10.1.3 China now economically well developed - some success attributed to AN policy
1.10.1.4 Policy successful in urban areas were they are more aware of economic benefits of smaller families
1.10.2 Negative
1.10.2.1 Methods show complete disregard for human rights
1.10.2.2 More elderly - LE increases - now problems regarding care for elderly
1.10.2.3 State care for elderly not universal + expensive due to increasing numbers
1.10.2.4 Late abortions and forced sterilisation - serious risks for a womans mental and physical health
1.10.2.5 Rural areas need children to work on farms
1.10.2.6 Culture places greater value on males - reported cases of female infanticide, abandonment and sex selective abortions
1.10.2.7 Gender Imbalance - 120M/100F - Normal 105M/100F
1.10.2.8 Normal family structures changed - next gen. no aunts, uncles and cousins
1.10.2.9 Only child may be over indulged - "little emperors"
2 National Migration Policy in CANADA
2.1 Factfile
2.1.1 Pop. of 33M (UK = 60M)
2.1.2 Rich resource base for industry, plentiful power supplies and rich fertile soils
2.1.3 75% of Canada's workforce comes from immigration
2.1.4 1 in 5 Canadian workers and foreign born
2.1.5 Always operated a highly selective migration system.
2.1.6 Policies evolved over time in such a way that the numbers + types of migrants were controlled to meet economic need
2.2 1. Open Door Policy: 1870-1918
2.2.1 Economic need - building of railway deemed necessary to tie Canada into an integrated economy (manufacturing in east and agriculture in west)
2.2.2 No restrictions on numbers - restrictions on source of migrants - Britain, USA and NWEurope
2.2.3 Gov. had control over racial composition
2.3 2. Preferred/Non-Preferred countries - 1919-1929
2.3.1 Preferred = Britain, USA, Aus, NZ and S.Africa - given financial assisstance to aid their move
2.3.2 Non-Preferre = Poland, Romania and Russia - admitted in times of need + lowest paid jobs
2.3.3 Non-Acceptable list = people from visible minorities eg Chinese - Exclusion Act of 1923 prevented them bringing family with them
2.4 3. Closed Door Policy 1980-1945
2.4.1 Unemployment rose + gov. stopped all migration apart from family
2.4.2 "Family Reunion" Category - those who are not entering the labour market + only from Britain and USA
2.5 4. 1946-1962
2.5.1 Gov. sought to increase the number of migrants
2.5.2 Renewed immigration was not allowed to alter the pop. composition of Canada
2.6 5. 1960- 1986
2.6.1 Racist undertones removed - attention was now on the skills of the migrants not the source.
2.6.2 Preferred/non-preferred list abandoned in favour of points system - seen as a fairer method of selection
2.6.3 Numbers were still highly controlled to reflect job availability - 1980's recession - migration was greatly reduced
2.7 6. 1986-1993
2.7.1 Pop. ageing and fertility levels fallen close to replacement levels - mid 1980's
2.7.2 Gov. viewed migration as a long term demographic necessity not just a short term solution to economic need
2.7.3 Canada was at risk of under population - no longer necessary to have pre-arranged job before entering
2.7.4 Numbers gaining entry increased from 85,000 in 1985 > 250,000 in 1993
2.8 7. 1993-2008
2.8.1 Migration seen as essential requirement for demographic stability
2.8.2 Still subject to points system - greater emphasis on technical + linguistic skills
2.8.3 Gov. set annual target of 320,000 migrants
2.9 Evaluation
2.9.1 Positive
2.9.1.1 75% of growth in Canadas wokforce is due to migration
2.9.1.2 Since 1992, immigration has accounted for 50% of overall pop. growth
2.9.1.3 National Insurance contributions by migrants contribute to state pension funds + health care for elderly
2.9.1.4 Migration has always been controlled to reflect perceived economic/demographic need
2.9.1.5 More enlightened policies followed since 1967
2.9.1.6 Canada is now a more global society as a result of changes in policy
2.9.1.7 Establishment of "Family Reunion" category allowed close family to enter Canada
2.9.2 Negative
2.9.2.1 Earlier policies racist
2.9.2.2 Migration always adjusted to needs of Canada - not migrant
2.9.2.3 Attempts to re direct migrants to less well developed parts of the country have been unsuccessful
2.9.2.4 Increase demand for services
2.9.2.5 New migrants unable to find work
2.9.2.6 Gov. reducing financial help to new migrants

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