AQA GCSE Biology genetic variation

Olivia Phillips
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

Just a simple mind map to try and give you an idea about genetic variation, answers included. Aimed at GCSE students. Good luck.

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Olivia Phillips
Created by Olivia Phillips over 5 years ago
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AQA GCSE Biology genetic variation
1 What is the definition of variation?

Annotations:

  • Variation is the differences between living organisms.
2 What is mutation?

Annotations:

  • Mutation is a change in DNA.
3 What is a gene?

Annotations:

  • A gene is a section of DNA that controls the characteristic of an organism.
4 Why do plants and animals share characteristics with their parents?

Annotations:

  • They inherit genes passed on when their parents gametes fuse.
5 Put the following words in order from the smallest to the largest to describe hoe genetic material is organised: CHROMOSONE, NUCLEUS, CELL, GENE.

Annotations:

  • The answer is: Gene > Chromosome > Nucleus > Cell
6 Explain how an embryo transplant can be used to clone a cow.

Annotations:

  • Cells are taken from a growing embryo before they become specialised. Each cell transplanted into a surrogate mother.
7 Why is an organism produced by adult cell cloning considered a clone?

Annotations:

  • Has genetic information from one parent only.
8 What two factors can affect the characteristics of an organism?

Annotations:

  • 1) Genes 2) Enviroment
9 Give a definition for sexual reproduction.

Annotations:

  • Fusion of male and female gametes.
10 What is the scientific name for an organism produced by the asexual reproduction?

Annotations:

  • Clone
11 Why do organisms produced by sexual reproduction show greater variation than those formed by asexual reproduction?

Annotations:

  • Sexual reproduction involves the mixing of genes from two parents; asexual genes are inherited from one parent only.
12 Describe two ways in which you can clone a plant.

Annotations:

  • Cuttings: Cut leaf from adult plant bud, dip in rooting powder and plant in compost. Tissue culture: take a small group of cells and grow on sterile agar.
13 List some reasons for genetically modifying a plant.

Annotations:

  • 1) Herbicide resistant 2) Insect resistant 3) Produce novel protein 4) Increase yield
14 How was dolly the sheep created by adult cell cloning?

Annotations:

  • 1) Nucleus removed from       unfertilised egg cell. 2) Nucleus from an adult body cell inserted into unfertilised egg cell. 3) Electric shock given to stimulate the cell to divide. 4) Ball of cells implanted into surrogate.
15 Why are some people opposed to the genetic modification of organisms?

Annotations:

  • 1) Damage to modified organism2) May lead to a smaller gene pool3) May upset natural balance of the ecosystem4) May harm the health of humans who eat GM organisms.

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