Variation is the differences between living organisms.
2 What is mutation?
Mutation is a change in DNA.
3 What is a gene?
A gene is a section of DNA that controls the characteristic of an organism.
4 Why do plants and animals
share characteristics with
They inherit genes passed on when their parents gametes fuse.
5 Put the following words in order from
the smallest to the largest to describe
hoe genetic material is organised:
CHROMOSONE, NUCLEUS, CELL, GENE.
The answer is:
Gene > Chromosome > Nucleus > Cell
6 Explain how an embryo
transplant can be used
to clone a cow.
Cells are taken from a growing embryo before they become specialised. Each cell transplanted into a surrogate mother.
7 Why is an organism
produced by adult
considered a clone?
Has genetic information from one parent only.
8 What two factors
can affect the
characteristics of an
9 Give a
Fusion of male and female gametes.
10 What is the
scientific name for
produced by the
11 Why do organisms produced by
sexual reproduction show greater
variation than those formed by
Sexual reproduction involves the mixing of genes from two parents; asexual genes are inherited from one parent only.
12 Describe two ways in
which you can clone
Cuttings: Cut leaf from adult plant bud, dip in rooting powder and plant in compost.
Tissue culture: take a small group of cells and grow on sterile agar.
13 List some reasons for
genetically modifying a
1) Herbicide resistant
2) Insect resistant
3) Produce novel protein
4) Increase yield
14 How was dolly the sheep created by
adult cell cloning?
1) Nucleus removed from unfertilised egg cell.
2) Nucleus from an adult body cell inserted into unfertilised egg cell.
3) Electric shock given to stimulate the cell to divide.
4) Ball of cells implanted into surrogate.
15 Why are some people
opposed to the genetic
1) Damage to modified organism2) May lead to a smaller gene pool3) May upset natural balance of the ecosystem4) May harm the health of humans who eat GM organisms.