Alexander III 1881 - 1894

charlotte151996
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

History (1881 - 24) Mind Map on Alexander III 1881 - 1894, created by charlotte151996 on 04/29/2013.

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charlotte151996
Created by charlotte151996 over 6 years ago
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Alexander III 1881 - 1894
1 Problems
1.1 Keeping large, multi-ethnic empire together.
1.1.1 Russification
1.1.1.1 1885 - Only use of Russian language.
1.2 Eradication of Tsarism.
1.2.1 People's Will 1879
1.3 Legacy left by his father.
1.3.1 Did not approve of fathers modernising policies.
1.3.1.1 In 1881 - launched Russia on a return to conservatism (End to further political reform.
2 Politcal repression
2.1 Moderates
2.1.1 Liberals who supported peaceful political change. Wanted freedom of the press and national parliment elected by educated and wealthy.
2.2 Extremists
2.2.1 People's Will / Nihilists - wanted to destroy Tsar's rule and give power to people (without any clear plan as how it might work).
2.2.2 Political and economic power handed to the peasants.
2.3 Pobedonostev
2.3.1 Chief minister and leading official of the state church.
2.3.1.1 Masterminded Alexander II's Manifesto - April 1881.
2.3.1.1.1 Absolute political power resided in the Tsar.
2.3.1.1.2 Undo reforms made by Alexander II.
3 New government
3.1 Statute of State security.
3.1.1 Government-controlled courts to try government opponents without the need for a jury.
3.2 Prevent spread of radical ideas.
3.2.1 Press freedom restricted.
3.2.2 Foreign books and newspapers censored by Okhrana (secret police).
3.2.3 University fees increased to exclude all but the very wealthy.
3.2.3.1 1884 - under control of gov.
3.3 Repressive policies did not destroy extremist groups.
3.4 Increased central control
3.4.1 Religious control over education.
3.4.1.1 Zemstav primary schools under Church control.
3.4.1.2 Sons of peasants and workers could not enter secondary school.
3.4.2 Pobedonostev turned the clock back in terms of social and political reform.
3.4.2.1 Russia under control of Tsar, landed classes and Russian Orthadox Church.
4 Financial reform
4.1 Most economically underdeveloped Great Power.
4.2 Economy mainly based on agriculture - backwards and underproductive.
4.3 Finance minister
4.3.1 Nikolai Bunge
4.3.1.1 1882 - laws to reduce tax burden on peasanst.
4.3.1.2 Peasant Land Bank
4.3.1.2.1 Loan facilities to help increase land size = more productive.
4.3.2 Ivan Vyshnegradsky
4.3.2.1 1889 - Financial incentives for peasants to migrate to Siberia
4.3.2.1.1 Took pressure off land demand. Couldnt prevent famine of 1891.
4.3.2.2 Finance economic development from foreign loans.
4.3.2.2.1 Foundations for Witte (1890s)

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