1 Dimensions in teaching of listening comprehension,
Jack C. Richards
1.1.1 Tries to understand the nature of listening
comprehension and takes into account the
processes that the listeners make use of.
188.8.131.52 A related level of
184.108.40.206.1 1 prepositional identification:
prepositions are the basic units of
220.127.116.11.2 2 Interpretation of illocutionary force.
18.104.22.168.3 3. An activation of real world knowledge
22.214.171.124 Central processes of listening
comprehension and ways in
which spoken discourse and
written text differ.
126.96.36.199.1 Clausal basis of speech:
several clauses coordinated
188.8.131.52.2 Reduced forms: speakers need
to express meanings efficiently
184.108.40.206.3 Ungrammatical forms:
ungrammatical forms and
constructions are frequent.
220.127.116.11.4 Pausing and speech errors:
pauses, hesitations, false starts,
and corrections in speech.
18.104.22.168.5 Rate of delivery: our perception
of the pace of speech is
affected by pausing.
22.214.171.124.6 Rhythm and stress:
126.96.36.199.7 Cohesive devices
188.8.131.52.8 Information content
184.108.40.206.9 Interactive: formal or informal
1.2.1 The design component of methodology enables the
identification of component micro-skills which
provide the focus for instructional activities.
220.127.116.11 Design phase in curriculum
18.104.22.168.1 Diagnostic testing assessment
22.214.171.124.2 Assessment of learners needs
126.96.36.199.3 Diagnostic testing
188.8.131.52.4 Formulation of instructional objectives
184.108.40.206.5 Needs assessment
220.127.116.11.6 Taxonomy of listening skills
1.3.1 In teaching listening comprehension the objective
is to provide opportunities for the learner to
acquire particular microskills.
1.3.2 Two variables in teaching listening that can be be
manipulated and they serve to develop in particular
skills areas Input and tasks.
1.3.3 Criteria that can be applied to the
evaluation of exercises and classroom
18.104.22.168 criteria for evaluating activities and exercises
22.214.171.124 content validity
126.96.36.199 purposefulness and transferability
188.8.131.52 testing or teaching
2 Characteristics of spoken texts (aspects of
comprehension that are unique to listening)
2.1 Phonological modification
2.1.1 in rapid speech, adjacent sounds influence each
other. Such modifications take place according to
a set of a very complex rules, and these rules
vary from one language to another.
184.108.40.206 E.G. English language. * Assimilation, when sounds influence the
pronunciation of adjacent sounds. * Elision, when
sounds are dropped in rapid speech.. * Intrusion,
when a new sound is introduced between other
220.127.116.11.1 Also, a little words with a grammatical function usually have
two pronunciations Strong and weak form.
2.2 Phonological modification and language
comprehension phonological system: real
speakers Vs classroom pronunciation
2.3 Prosodic features: stress
2.3.1 Word stress / Sentence stress
2.3.3 Prosody and comprehension
2.3.4 Hesitation and language comprehension
2.3.5 Discourse structure
2.3.6 Non-verbal signals
3 Factors influencing Engllish Liistening comprenhensionand possible
measures for improvement
3.1 In China the GTM has been found inadequate because
it was found that English must be taught as a tooll for
3.2 According to Asher, Postovsky, Winitz, Krashen the role of listening is a tool
for understanding and emhasized as key factor in facilitating language
3.3 Teachers must explore...
3.3.1 Nature and process of listening comprenhension
3.3.2 study the theory and methodology of LC
3.4 Listening strategies contribute to the
comprenhension and recall of listening
3.4.1 Listening strategies are
classified according to the way
the listener processes the input.
3.5 Complex sentences are
different from one language to
3.6 Cultural knowledge and thinking differences
between languages affect listening
3.7 It is essential to encourage ss to be autonomous.
3.8 Discrimination in English
pronunciation, intonation and
language flow are the most
important fro beginners.
3.9 Predictive ability is an important micro skill.
3.10 The ability to guess the meaning is also an important lmicro skills.