Overview, uniqueness and real-life listening

CLAUDIA MARTINEZ
Mind Map by CLAUDIA MARTINEZ, updated more than 1 year ago
CLAUDIA MARTINEZ
Created by CLAUDIA MARTINEZ over 3 years ago
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Overview, uniqueness and real-life listening
1 Dimensions in teaching of listening comprehension, Jack C. Richards
1.1 APPROACH
1.1.1 Tries to understand the nature of listening comprehension and takes into account the processes that the listeners make use of.
1.1.1.1 A related level of discourse processing
1.1.1.1.1 1 prepositional identification: prepositions are the basic units of meaning involved.
1.1.1.1.2 2 Interpretation of illocutionary force.
1.1.1.1.3 3. An activation of real world knowledge
1.1.1.2 Central processes of listening comprehension and ways in which spoken discourse and written text differ.
1.1.1.2.1 Clausal basis of speech: several clauses coordinated
1.1.1.2.2 Reduced forms: speakers need to express meanings efficiently
1.1.1.2.3 Ungrammatical forms: ungrammatical forms and constructions are frequent.
1.1.1.2.4 Pausing and speech errors: pauses, hesitations, false starts, and corrections in speech.
1.1.1.2.5 Rate of delivery: our perception of the pace of speech is affected by pausing.
1.1.1.2.6 Rhythm and stress:
1.1.1.2.7 Cohesive devices
1.1.1.2.8 Information content
1.1.1.2.9 Interactive: formal or informal discourse.
1.2 DESIGN
1.2.1 The design component of methodology enables the identification of component micro-skills which provide the focus for instructional activities.
1.2.1.1 Design phase in curriculum development
1.2.1.1.1 Diagnostic testing assessment
1.2.1.1.2 Assessment of learners needs
1.2.1.1.3 Diagnostic testing
1.2.1.1.4 Formulation of instructional objectives
1.2.1.1.5 Needs assessment
1.2.1.1.6 Taxonomy of listening skills
1.3 PROCEDURE
1.3.1 In teaching listening comprehension the objective is to provide opportunities for the learner to acquire particular microskills.
1.3.2 Two variables in teaching listening that can be be manipulated and they serve to develop in particular skills areas Input and tasks.
1.3.3 Criteria that can be applied to the evaluation of exercises and classroom procedures.
1.3.3.1 criteria for evaluating activities and exercises
1.3.3.2 content validity
1.3.3.3 purposefulness and transferability
1.3.3.4 testing or teaching
1.3.3.5 authenticity
2 Characteristics of spoken texts (aspects of comprehension that are unique to listening)
2.1 Phonological modification
2.1.1 in rapid speech, adjacent sounds influence each other. Such modifications take place according to a set of a very complex rules, and these rules vary from one language to another.
2.1.1.1 E.G. English language. * Assimilation, when sounds influence the pronunciation of adjacent sounds. * Elision, when sounds are dropped in rapid speech.. * Intrusion, when a new sound is introduced between other sounds.
2.1.1.1.1 Also, a little words with a grammatical function usually have two pronunciations Strong and weak form.
2.2 Phonological modification and language comprehension phonological system: real speakers Vs classroom pronunciation
2.2.1 Accent
2.3 Prosodic features: stress and intonation
2.3.1 Word stress / Sentence stress
2.3.2 Intonation
2.3.3 Prosody and comprehension
2.3.4 Hesitation and language comprehension
2.3.5 Discourse structure
2.3.6 Non-verbal signals
3 Factors influencing Engllish Liistening comprenhensionand possible measures for improvement
3.1 In China the GTM has been found inadequate because it was found that English must be taught as a tooll for communication.
3.2 According to Asher, Postovsky, Winitz, Krashen the role of listening is a tool for understanding and emhasized as key factor in facilitating language learning.
3.3 Teachers must explore...
3.3.1 Nature and process of listening comprenhension
3.3.2 study the theory and methodology of LC
3.4 Listening strategies contribute to the comprenhension and recall of listening input.
3.4.1 Listening strategies are classified according to the way the listener processes the input.
3.5 Complex sentences are different from one language to another
3.6 Cultural knowledge and thinking differences between languages affect listening comprenhension
3.7 It is essential to encourage ss to be autonomous.
3.8 Discrimination in English pronunciation, intonation and language flow are the most important fro beginners.
3.9 Predictive ability is an important micro skill.
3.10 The ability to guess the meaning is also an important lmicro skills.
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