Mind Map on Evolution of Psychology, created by Kimmy Hudy on 09/07/2016.
Evolution of Psychology
1 How psychology developed
1.1 A new science is born
1.1.1 Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological research lab in 1879
1.1.2 G. Stanley Hall established Americas first research laboratory in psychology at Johns Hopkins University in 1883.
1.1.3 G. Stanley Hall also established the American Psychological Association(APA)
1.2 Battle of the "Schools"
To analyze consciousness into basic elements such as sensations, feelings, vision, hearing, sound and images.
Based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather than its structure.
22.214.171.124.1 William James
126.96.36.199.1.1 psychology should investigate the
functions rather than the structure of
188.8.131.52 Eward Titchener
self-observation to one's own conscious experience
scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
1.3.1 John B. Watson
184.108.40.206 proposed that psychologists abandon the study of
consciousness and focus exclusively on behaviours that
could be observed directly
Any detectable input from the environment. ranges from light, sound waves, words in a book, and advertisements on TV.
220.127.116.11 the behavioural approach is often
referred to as stimulus response (S-R)
18.104.22.168.1 Behaviourism's S-R approach
contributed to the rise of animal
research in psycholoy
1.4 Freud bring the
unconscious into the
1.4.1 Freud treated mental disorders, psychological problems such as irrational fears,
obsessions, and anxieties with psychoanalysis
22.214.171.124 Freud made suggestions that people were not masters of their own
minds. He also proposed that behaviour is greatly influenced by
how people cope with their sexual urges.
Contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that exert a great influence on behaviour
1.4.3 Psychoanalytic theory
explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
126.96.36.199 widely known around the world by 1920
188.8.131.52.1 by the 1940s, Psychoanalysis wasa becoming so popular that it threatened to eclipse psychology entirely
1.5 Skinner questions free will as Behaviourism Flourishes
1.5.1 organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes and they tend to not repeat responses that lead to
neutral or negative outcomes
184.108.40.206 Skinner showed he could control the behaviour of animals by
manipulating the outcomes of their responses. He was able to
train animals to perform unnatural behaviours
220.127.116.11.1 Behavioural principles are now widely
used in factories, schools, prisons,
mental hospitals, and more
1.5.2 free will is an illusion
18.104.22.168 Skinner asserted that all behaviour is fully governed by external stimuli. According to
Skinner, people are controlled by their environment
1.6 The Humanists Revolt
1.6.1 in 1950's behaviourism and psychoanalytic were "dehumanizing"
theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth
22.214.171.124.1 Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow understood that in order to fully understand peoples behaviour, psychologists must take
into account the fundamental human drive towards personal growth. People have a basic need to continue to evolve as
human beings and to fulfill their potential.
126.96.36.199.1.1 To date, humanist's greatest contribution to psychology has probably been their innovative treatments for psychological
problems and disorders.
1.7 Psychology comes of Age as a Profession
1.7.1 Applied psychology
psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems.
Branch of psychology concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders
188.8.131.52.1 During World War 2, many academic psychologists were pressed
into service as clinicians. They treated soldiers suffering from
trauma. Many veterans returned to seek post war treatment in
hospitals for their psychological scars.
184.108.40.206.1.1 Within a few years, about half of
the new Ph.D.s in psychology
were specializing in clinical
psychology and most went on to
offer professional services to the
1.8 Cognition and Neuroscience
Refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge. Involves thinking or conscious experience.
220.127.116.11 Jean Piaget (1954) focused increased attention on the study of children's cognitive development
18.104.22.168 Noam Chomsky (1957) elicited new interest in the psychological underpinnings of language
22.214.171.124 Around the same time as Noam Chomsky,
Herbert Simon and his colleagues began
influential research on problem solving that
eventually lead to a Nobel Prize.
126.96.36.199 Cognitive Perspective
Manipulations of mental images influence how they behave.
188.8.131.52.1 Cognitive theorists have argued that psychology must study
internal mental events to fully understand behaviour.
184.108.40.206.1.1 Psychologists investigating decision making, reasoning, and
problem solving have shown methods can be devised to
study cognitive processes scientificially
1.8.2 Donald Hebb argued that the locus of
behaviour should be sought in the brain.
220.127.116.11 Cell assembly
1.9 Culture and Diversity
1.9.1 Advances in communication, travel, and international trade have "shrunk"
the world and increased global interdependence bringing more North
Americans and Europeans into contact with people from non-western
18.104.22.168 Ethnic makeup of the Western world has become an increasingly diverse multicultural mosiac
22.214.171.124.1 Canada's foreign-born residents make up over 20 percent of the total population
1.9.2 Psychologists today are broadening
their horizons and incorporating
cultural factors into their theories and
research. They are working to increase
knowledge of how culture is transmitted
through socialization and how culture
colours one's view of the world.
126.96.36.199 Psychologists are striving to understand the unique experiences
of culturally diverse people from the point of view of those
1.10 Psychology Adapts
1.10.1 Evolutionary psychology
examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations
188.8.131.52 Natural selection favours behaviours that enhance organisms' reproductive success.
2 " the study of the mind"
3 Psychology in Canada
3.1 The first experimental laboratory in
the British empire was established
by James Mark Baldwin at the
University of Toronto in 1891
3.1.1 Psychology at universities in Canada became more common In the
1850's beginning then at McGill University in Montreal and the
University of Toronto
184.108.40.206 The Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) was formed in 1939. Majority are women.
220.127.116.11.1 Women now make up the majority or undergraduate M.A students at Canadian Universities and
are in the majority in undergraduate programs in the social and behavioural sciences, in law,
and graduate programs in psychology.