Fundamentals of ComputerSystems: Pages 1-5

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Fundamentals of ComputerSystems: Pages 1-5
1 Computer Systems
1.1 Computer
1.1.1 An electronic, programmable data processing machine
1.2 System
1.2.1 A collection of parts that work together for some defined purpose
1.3 Computer system
1.3.1 A collection of hardware and software that woks together to achieve some data processing task
1.4 A system is separated from the outside world by a SYSTEM BOUNDARY
1.4.1 They are often known as INTERFACES
1.5 Examples:
1.5.1 Holiday booking
1.5.1.1 Inputs - dates, destinations, credit card details
1.5.1.1.1 Processing - check availability, produce documents
1.5.1.1.1.1 Outputs - itineraries, air tickets, hotel reservations
1.5.2 Satnav
1.5.2.1 Inputs - signals form satellites, inputs from user
1.5.2.1.1 Processing - check position, locate on map, output map
1.5.2.1.1.1 Outputs - route, places of interest, warnings
2 Systems receive INPUTS
2.1 PROCESS these inputs
2.1.1 OUTPUT the result of the processing
3 Importance of Computer Systems
3.1 Improved quality of manufacturing
3.2 Cheaper manufacturing
3.3 Faster access to information
3.4 Better decision making
3.5 New ways of doing buisness
3.6 New ways of communicating
4 Types of Computer System
4.1 General-purpose systems
4.1.1 Designed to perform multiple tasks using various applications e.g. laptops, iphones
4.2 Dedicated systems
4.2.1 Perform a single function or set of functions e.g. train ticket-vending machine
4.3 Control systems
4.3.1 Control machinery and are important in manufacturing processes
4.4 Embedded systems
4.4.1 Part of a larger system (usually control systems)
4.4.1.1 They include portable devices like satnavs and camera, but also larger installations like traffic lights
4.4.1.1.1 Can be very simple or highly complex
4.5 Expert systems
4.5.1 Behave like a human expert
4.5.1.1 Used for diagnosing diseases, finding faults in machinery, etc.
4.5.2 They have three component parts:
4.5.2.1 1) A knowledge base (a database of facts)
4.5.2.2 2) An inference engine (software that makes deductions using the knowledge base)
4.5.2.3 3) An interface (to allow a human user access the system)
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