Environmental Pollution

andrea  lomniczi
Mind Map by andrea lomniczi, updated more than 1 year ago
andrea  lomniczi
Created by andrea lomniczi over 4 years ago



Resource summary

Environmental Pollution
  1. Definition
    1. Pollution
      1. Addition of undesirable material into the environment as a result of human activities
        1. Types of pollution
          1. AIR
            1. Presence of any solid, liquid or gaseous substance including noise and radioactive radiation in the atmosphere in such concentration that may be injurious to humans and plants.
              1. Suspended particulate matter
                1. Dust and soot from industrial chimneys, power plants, cars, construction activities, etc
                2. Gaseous
                  1. Petrol and diesel as fuel from industries and cars release gaseous pollutants such as carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide cause respiratory problems, and disordes among others.
                  2. Prevention and control of Air Pollution
                    1. 1. Use cleaner fuels like LNG and biogas.
                      1. 2. Installing devices like filters, scrubbers,inertial collectors, etc
                        1. 3. Environmental friendly industrial processes to minimize hazardous waste.
                3. NOISE
                  1. Any unwanted environmental sound that is generally considered likely to annoy, distract or even harm other people. Anything above 80 dB is hazardous
                    1. Indoors
                      1. Radio, television, electric fans and family conflict.
                      2. Outdoors
                        1. Loudspeakers, automobiles, traffic, machines and industrial activities.
                        2. Control and prevention of Noise Pollution
                          1. 1. Better design and maintenance of vehicles.
                            1. 2. Sound proofing equipment like generators in industries.
                              1. 3. Loudspeakers should be prohibited by night
                                1. 4. Use green belt trees for noise absorption.
                      3. WATER
                        1. The addition of harmful chemicals to natural water caused by industrial, agricultural and domestic activities
                          1. Sewages with human and animal waste, pesticides like DDT, metals like lead, zinc, arsenic, copper and accidents of oil tankers.
                            1. Control Water Pollution
                              1. 1. Waste water recycling for certain uses with or without treatment.
                                1. 2. Do not dispose household chemicals or cleaning agents down the sink or toilet.
                                  1. 3. Run the dishwasher or clothes washer only when you have a full load to reduce electricity and water usage.
                        2. SOIL
                          1. The contamination of soil with harmful substances that can adversely affect the quality of the soil and the health of those living on it.
                            1. Plastic bags, sewages, fly ash, medical waste, organic matter, etc
                              1. Control of soil pollution
                                1. 1. Stop use of plastic bags, instead use degradable bags.
                                  1. 2. Treat sewages before using them as fertilizers.
                                    1. 3. Biomedical waste separately collected and incinerated.
                          2. THERMAL
                            1. The rise in the temperature of rivers or lakes that is injurious to water-dwelling life
                              1. Waste heat generated from electric power plants and run-off stemming from hot paved surfaces. Use of water as a cooling agent in natural gas, nuclear and coal power plants.
                                1. Control Thermal Pollution
                                  1. 1. Store hot water in cooling ponds and allow it to cool before releasing it
                                    1. 2. Use cooling towers to transfer waste heat to the atmosphere through evaporation and heat transfer.
                                      1. 3. Recycle waste heat for domestic and industrial heating purposes. (cogeneration)
                            2. RADIATION
                              1. Increase in over the natural background radiation
                                1. Radioactive minerals, Cosmic rays, Radio nuclides, Nuclear power plants, Radio-active wastes, Nuclear explosions, Radio-isotopes, etc
                                  1. Control Radiation Pollution
                                    1. 1. The disposal of radioactive material must be safe and secure. They must be stored in the safe places and must be changed into harmless form.
                                      1. 2. The nuclear power plants must follow all the safe instructions
                                        1. 3. Production of radio isotopes should be minimised.
                        3. Pollutants
                          1. Physical, chemical and biologica substance unintencionally released into the environment which is directly or indirectly harmful to humans and other living organisms
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