Chemical Composition of the body

Alma Cariño
Mind Map by Alma Cariño , updated more than 1 year ago
Alma Cariño
Created by Alma Cariño almost 4 years ago
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Capitulo 2 - Fisiología
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Chemical Composition of the body
1 Atoms , Ions and Chemical Bonds
1.1 Atoms Structure
1.1.1 Nucleus is the center of the atom
1.1.1.1 Protons and Neutrons
1.1.1.1.1 Protons (Positive Charge)
1.1.1.1.1.1 Atomic Number
1.1.1.1.2 Neutrons (Neutral Charge)
1.1.1.1.3 Mass Number
1.1.2 Electron (Negative Charge )
1.1.2.1 Valence Electrons
1.1.2.2 Outside of the nucleus
1.1.2.3 Orbitals
1.1.2.3.1 Energy Levels
1.2 Molecules
1.2.1 Interactions of valence electrons between 2 or more atoms
1.2.1.1 Produce Chemical Bonds
1.2.1.1.1 Isotopes
1.2.1.1.1.1 Different Forms
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Atomic Number Equal and Atomic Mass Distinct
1.2.1.1.2 Covalent
1.2.1.1.2.1 Atoms share their valence atoms
1.2.1.1.2.1.1 Nonpolar
1.2.1.1.2.1.1.1 Electrons are distributed equally between the two atoms
1.2.1.1.2.1.2 Polar
1.2.1.1.2.1.2.1 It has a positive pole and one negative
1.2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1 Water in the body
1.2.1.1.2.1.2.1.1.1 Water and Hydrogen
1.3 Ionic Bonds
1.3.1 1 or more valence electrons of an atom are transfered
1.3.1.1 Electrons are not share
1.3.1.2 The fist atom losses its electrons
1.3.1.2.1 Then it has a positive charge
1.3.1.2.1.1 It is called cation
1.3.1.3 The second atoms has a negative charge
1.3.1.3.1 It is called Anion
1.3.2 They are weaker than covalent bonds
1.4 Hydrogen Bonds
1.4.1 Weak Attraction
1.4.1.1 Hydrogen atom forms a polar covalent bond with a oxygen or nytrogen atom
1.4.1.1.1 Hydrogen atom with a slight positive charge
1.4.1.1.2 the other is a electronegative atom
2 Acid, base and pH
2.1 Acids
2.1.1 Donate Hydroge ions to the solution
2.1.1.1 Increase the concentration of H+
2.1.1.1.1 So reduce the pH BELOW 7
2.2 Bases
2.2.1 Ion concentration decreases in a solution of Hydrogen
2.2.1.1 Lessen the concentration of H+
2.2.1.1.1 Increase the pH above 7
2.3 pH Scale
2.3.1 A negative function of the logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
2.3.1.1 Neutral Solution
2.3.1.1.1 H+ concentration is equal to the concentration of OH-
2.3.1.1.1.1 pH is 7
3 Organic molecules
3.1 Carbon and Hydrogen Atoms present in covalent bonds
4 Carbohydrates and Lipds
4.1 Carbohydrates
4.1.1 Consist of simple sugars
4.1.1.1 Monosaccharides
4.1.1.2 Dissacharides
4.1.1.3 Polysaccharides
4.2 Lipds
4.2.1 Ketones
4.2.1.1 Are derived smaller of fatty acids
4.2.2 Phospholipids
4.2.2.1 Contains phosphate
4.2.2.1.1 Have a hydrophilic polar group
4.2.2.1.1.1 The remainder of the molecule is hydrophobic
4.2.2.1.2 EXAMPLE lecithin
4.2.3 Steroids
4.2.3.1 Lipids structure of four charactericts rings
4.2.3.2 Hormones of the adrenal cortex and gonads
4.2.4 Prostaglandins
4.2.4.1 Family of cyclic fatty acids
4.2.4.1.1 Perform a variety of regulatory functions
4.2.5 Triglycerides
4.2.5.1 Consists of 3 fatty acid molecules
4.2.5.1.1 Attached to a GLYCEROL molecule
5 Proteins
5.1 Combained with Carbohydrates , lipids and other molecules
5.2 Structure
5.2.1 Composed of long chains of amino acids
5.2.1.1 attached by covalent peptide bonds
5.2.1.1.1 Amino Group
5.2.1.1.2 Carboxyl Group
5.2.1.1.3 Functional Group
5.2.2 The polypeptide chain can rotate and form a helix
5.2.2.1 Flex and Bend to form the tertiary structure of the protein
6 Nucleic Acids
6.1 DNA composed of 4 nucleotides
6.1.1 Contein the deoxyribose sugar
6.1.1.1 Consist of 2 polynucleotide chains
6.1.1.1.1 Attached by Hydrogen bonds between their bases
6.2 RNA Consists of four nucleotides
6.2.1 Contains the ribose sugar
6.2.1.1 Adenine
6.2.1.2 Guananine
6.2.1.3 Cytosine
6.2.1.4 Uracil
6.2.2 Consists of a single polynucleotide chain

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