Chemical Composition of the body

Alma Cariño
Mind Map by Alma Cariño , updated more than 1 year ago
Alma Cariño
Created by Alma Cariño almost 4 years ago


Capitulo 2 - Fisiología

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Chemical Composition of the body
1 Atoms , Ions and Chemical Bonds
1.1 Atoms Structure
1.1.1 Nucleus is the center of the atom Protons and Neutrons Protons (Positive Charge) Atomic Number Neutrons (Neutral Charge) Mass Number
1.1.2 Electron (Negative Charge ) Valence Electrons Outside of the nucleus Orbitals Energy Levels
1.2 Molecules
1.2.1 Interactions of valence electrons between 2 or more atoms Produce Chemical Bonds Isotopes Different Forms Atomic Number Equal and Atomic Mass Distinct Covalent Atoms share their valence atoms Nonpolar Electrons are distributed equally between the two atoms Polar It has a positive pole and one negative Water in the body Water and Hydrogen
1.3 Ionic Bonds
1.3.1 1 or more valence electrons of an atom are transfered Electrons are not share The fist atom losses its electrons Then it has a positive charge It is called cation The second atoms has a negative charge It is called Anion
1.3.2 They are weaker than covalent bonds
1.4 Hydrogen Bonds
1.4.1 Weak Attraction Hydrogen atom forms a polar covalent bond with a oxygen or nytrogen atom Hydrogen atom with a slight positive charge the other is a electronegative atom
2 Acid, base and pH
2.1 Acids
2.1.1 Donate Hydroge ions to the solution Increase the concentration of H+ So reduce the pH BELOW 7
2.2 Bases
2.2.1 Ion concentration decreases in a solution of Hydrogen Lessen the concentration of H+ Increase the pH above 7
2.3 pH Scale
2.3.1 A negative function of the logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration Neutral Solution H+ concentration is equal to the concentration of OH- pH is 7
3 Organic molecules
3.1 Carbon and Hydrogen Atoms present in covalent bonds
4 Carbohydrates and Lipds
4.1 Carbohydrates
4.1.1 Consist of simple sugars Monosaccharides Dissacharides Polysaccharides
4.2 Lipds
4.2.1 Ketones Are derived smaller of fatty acids
4.2.2 Phospholipids Contains phosphate Have a hydrophilic polar group The remainder of the molecule is hydrophobic EXAMPLE lecithin
4.2.3 Steroids Lipids structure of four charactericts rings Hormones of the adrenal cortex and gonads
4.2.4 Prostaglandins Family of cyclic fatty acids Perform a variety of regulatory functions
4.2.5 Triglycerides Consists of 3 fatty acid molecules Attached to a GLYCEROL molecule
5 Proteins
5.1 Combained with Carbohydrates , lipids and other molecules
5.2 Structure
5.2.1 Composed of long chains of amino acids attached by covalent peptide bonds Amino Group Carboxyl Group Functional Group
5.2.2 The polypeptide chain can rotate and form a helix Flex and Bend to form the tertiary structure of the protein
6 Nucleic Acids
6.1 DNA composed of 4 nucleotides
6.1.1 Contein the deoxyribose sugar Consist of 2 polynucleotide chains Attached by Hydrogen bonds between their bases
6.2 RNA Consists of four nucleotides
6.2.1 Contains the ribose sugar Adenine Guananine Cytosine Uracil
6.2.2 Consists of a single polynucleotide chain

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