ren ata
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ren ata
Created by ren ata over 4 years ago
ren ata
Copied by ren ata over 4 years ago


carbohydrates and their characteristics

Resource summary

  1. Part of the organic biomolecules
    1. - Made of C, H, and O. - Make up about 65% of our diet
      1. EX: Glucose
      2. Functions
        1. Precursors
          1. Of certain lipids, amino acids, purines, pyramids & vitamins
          2. Structural
            1. Ex: cellulose in plants, bacterias & fungi
            2. Energy
              1. Ex: glycogen broken down
              2. Reserve
                1. Ex: glycogen
                2. Recognition Signals
                  1. Involved in cell recognition
                    1. Ex: coagulation, hormone recognition
                3. Bonds
                  1. Glycosidic Bond
                    1. -Covalent bond, joins a carbohydrate to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate
                  2. Chemical reactions
                    1. Reduction
                      1. Produces sugar alcohol
                        1. Alditols
                      2. Esterification
                        1. Usually performed by treating the carbohydrate with an acid chloride or an acid anhydride in the presence of a base
                        2. Mutarotation
                          1. Conversion between α and β forms when monosaccharides are dissolved in water
                          2. Oxidation
                            1. Presence of oxidizing agents monosaccharides pass through several oxidation rxn.’s
                              1. Produce
                                1. Uronic acid
                                  1. Aldaric acid
                                    1. Aldonic acid
                              2. Nomenclature
                                1. end in -ose.
                                  1. according to the number of C’s
                                    1. keto + the number of C’s
                                      1. aldo + the number of C’s
                                  2. Classification
                                    1. Polysaccharides
                                      1. many monosaccharides
                                      2. Disaccharides
                                        1. 2 monosaccharides
                                        2. Monosaccharides
                                          1. 3 to 6 C atoms
                                        3. Isomerism
                                          1. L and D isomers
                                            1. - Fisher projection The -OH on the chiral carbon farthest from the carbonyl group
                                              1. LEFT L-isomer
                                                1. RIGHT D-isomer
                                              2. α and β anomers
                                                1. - Haworth structure The -OH on the first chiral carbon
                                                  1. UP β-anomer
                                                    1. DOWN α-anomer
                                                2. Ketone
                                                  1. carbonyl group on the second carbon
                                                  2. Aldose
                                                    1. carbonyl group on the first carbon
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