The Age of Revolution

Paula Camacho
Mind Map by Paula Camacho, updated more than 1 year ago
Paula Camacho
Created by Paula Camacho over 3 years ago
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Mind Map on The Age of Revolution, created by Paula Camacho on 10/23/2016.

Resource summary

The Age of Revolution
1 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
1.1 ORIGINS OF INDEPENDENCE
1.1.1 Early 17th century: First English settlers arrived to the east coast of North America
1.1.1.1 By mid-18th century: Thirteen Colonies had been formed.
1.1.2 Britain wanted American raw materials
1.1.2.1 British Crown was an obstacle for American economic development
1.1.2.1.1 People from the Colonies stopped paying the taxes the British Crown had imposed them, and also stopped buying British products as protest.
1.1.2.1.1.1 Tea Act passed in 1773
1.1.2.1.1.1.1 American traders opposed to this, and attacked British ships full of Tea at Boston (Boston Tea Party)
1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1 1776: Thomas Jefferson signed the Virginia Declaration of Rights, which contained principles of national soverignity, separation of powers and suffrage.
1.1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 4th of July 1776: Declaration of Independence signed.
1.2 AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR (1775-1783)
1.2.1 American colonies were supported by Spain and France, and led by George Washington.
1.2.1.1 United States were recognised as an independent nation in the Treaty of Versailles (1783)
1.2.1.1.1 First constitution of United States signed (1787), which established national sovereignity and separation of powers.
1.2.1.1.1.1 Members of the Legislative power were chosen in elections, where only white males could vote. Executive power was held by independent judges.
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 George Washington became the first president of the United States (1789)
2 OUTBREAK OF THE FRENCH RVEOLUTION (1789-1792)
2.1 FAILURES OF THE OLD REGIME
2.1.1 They were the origins of the Revolution
2.1.1.1 Social unrest
2.1.1.1.1 The Third State stopped paying taxes to protest
2.1.1.1.2 Wealthy bourgeoisie frustrated by their lack of political power
2.1.1.2 Economy
2.1.1.2.1 A tax crisis appeared
2.1.1.2.2 Prices rose because of bad harvests
2.1.1.2.3 More hunger and social unrest appeared
2.1.1.3 Enlightenment
2.1.1.3.1 It made people question royal authority, which was seen as unfair and inefficient
2.2 RISE OF THE THIRD STATE
2.2.1 Louis XVI tried to impose financial reforms, which were opposed by many of the estates
2.2.1.1 King called the Estates-General (1789) so that people from every estate could present their problems in the Lists of Grievances.
2.2.1.1.1 National assembly, formed by the Third Estate, considered themselves as the only true representatives of the French.
2.2.1.1.1.1 They took the Tennis Court Oath until France had a constitution, and they became known as the National Constituent Assembly.
2.3 END OF THE OLD REGIME (1789-1791)
2.3.1 By August 1789, the opposition to the Old Regime had become more radical
2.3.1.1 Paris people attacked the Bastille fortress, a symbol of absolutism.
2.3.1.1.1 The Great Fear started in rural areas, where peasants atacked nobles' castles.
2.3.1.1.1.1 National Constituent Assembly established some measures that ended the Old Regime
2.3.1.1.1.1.1 Feudal rights abolished.
2.3.1.1.1.1.2 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen ssupported personal liberty, right of property and equality before the law.
2.3.1.1.1.1.3 France's first constitution was signed in 1791, and ended absolutism
2.3.1.1.1.1.3.1 Constitutional monarchy established
2.4 OPPOSITION TO THE CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY (1791-1792)
2.4.1 Legislative assembly formed in 1791
2.4.1.1 It didn't last more than a year because of lack of support
2.4.1.1.1 Nobles and clergy opposed to the Constitutional Monarchy, and didn't want to lose their privileges
2.4.1.1.1.1 They emigrated and conspired against the Revolution
2.4.1.1.2 Radical revolutionaires thought the Revolution hadn't gone far enough
2.4.1.1.2.1 Supported by Sans-culottes
2.4.1.1.3 Other European countries felt threatened by Revolutionary ideas.
2.4.1.1.3.1 Prussia and Austria declared war on France (1792)
2.4.1.1.3.1.1 Many defeats, king was blamed.
2.4.1.1.3.1.1.1 Insurrection (1792): Tuileries palace was attacked, and the royal family was taken prisoner.
3 THE FIRST FRENCH REPUBLIC (1791-1799)
3.1 BIRTH OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC (1792-1793)
3.1.1 After Insurrection, a National Convention governed France, and France became a Republic
3.1.1.1 Girondins controlled the assembly
3.1.1.1.1 Louis XVI condemned and executed by gullotine in 1793
3.1.1.1.1.1 Not good reactions, First Coalition formed
3.2 THE REIGN OF TERROR (1793-1794)
3.2.1 Radical revolutionaires (Jacobins) tried to seize power from the Girondins with the support of the Sans-culottes
3.2.1.1 Robespierre, the Jacobin leader established a dictatorship
3.2.1.1.1 There was a period of violent repression
3.2.1.1.1.1 Georges Danton and Robespierre established the Committee of Public Safety, which judged people suspected of conspiring against the Revolution
3.2.1.1.1.1.1 Many people were sentenced to death by guillotine
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Robespierre imposed maximum prices for basic products and reduced salaries in order to cease the crisis
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Conflict with Sans-Culottes
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Robespierre lost support and was arrested alongside his followers, and was executed in 1794
3.3 THE DIRECTORY (1795-1799)
3.3.1 New constitution established (1795)
3.3.1.1 Suffrage was limited and based on property ownership
3.3.1.1.1 There was not much support, many problems appeared.
3.3.1.1.1.1 Radicals conspired against the government
3.3.1.1.1.2 Conspirancy of Equals: plot to overthrow the government and establish an egalitarian society
3.3.1.1.1.3 Royalists tried to recover the Bourbon Dynasty
3.3.1.1.1.4 Napoleon conquered many parts of Europe
3.3.1.1.1.4.1 France's enemies formed the Second Coalition
3.3.1.1.1.4.1.1 Napoleon did a coup d'état (1799), created a consulate and became the ruler of France
4 EUROPE UNDER NAPOLEON
4.1 REFORMS UNDER NAPOLEON
4.1.1 He became the first consul, and the Consul for Life.
4.1.2 Napoleonic Code
4.1.2.1 Legal code, prohibited certain privileges, allowed freedom of religion and simplified previous reforms
4.1.3 The Concordat
4.1.3.1 Maintained state control over Church, established that confiscated Church lands couldn't be returned and made clergy able to resume religious worships
4.2 NAPOLEONIC EMPIRE
4.2.1 Napoleon declared himself Emperor of the French in 1804
4.2.1.1 France was constantly at war with other countries
4.2.1.1.1 Defeated by the British at the Battle of Trafalgar (1805)
4.2.1.1.1.1 He conquered many parts of Europe and had notable victories.
4.2.1.1.1.1.1 As Britain was France's main enemy, Napoleon established the Continental Blockade, which was an attempt to stop British trade in Europe
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 The Portuguese didn't like this, so Napoleon invaded Portugal
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 He also occupied Spain, which led to the Spanish War of Independence (1808)
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 He tried to invade Russia but was unsuccessful, and lost many of his people (1812)
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 He was defeated in the Battle of Leizpig (1813) by the Coalition (Britain, Austria, Russia and Prussia)
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 He was also defeated in Spain the same year
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Napoleon abdicated in 1814 and went into exile.
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 He returned to power for a hundred days, but was defeated at Waterloo (1815)
4.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 He was finally deported to Saint Helena, where he died in 1821
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