Changing Urban Enviroments

zakbarwell
Mind Map by zakbarwell, updated more than 1 year ago
zakbarwell
Created by zakbarwell about 6 years ago
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GCSE Geography (Human) Mind Map on Changing Urban Enviroments, created by zakbarwell on 26/03/2014.
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Changing Urban Enviroments
1 Urbanisation
1.1 the growth in proportion of a country's population living in urban areas.
1.2 Most of population in richer countries already live in URBAN AREAS.
1.2.1 Reasons:
1.2.1.1 Occurred during industrial revolutions, machinery replaced labour
1.3 Not many of the population of poorer countries live in URBAN AREAS.
1.3.1 most of urbanisation in the world today gong on in poorer countries at a faster pace.
1.3.2 Reasons:
1.3.2.1 Shortage of services in rural areas, education and access to water.
1.3.2.2 More jobs in in urban areas.
1.3.2.3 Industry attracted to cities, larger workforce & better infrastructure.
2 Parts of a city
2.1 CBD
2.1.1 Central Business District
2.1.2 Centre of city
2.1.3 Commercial centre - shops & offices
2.1.4 Competition for space, high land values
2.1.5 Few people live here
2.2 The Inner City
2.2.1 Around the CBD
2.2.2 poorer quality housing
2.2.3 older industrial building
2.2.4 run down & deprived
2.2.5 derelict land cleared & redeveloped
2.3 The Suburbs
2.3.1 Housing areas towards the edge
2.3.2 Land is cheaper
2.3.3 commute to work easily
2.3.4 Nice environment; less crime & pollution
2.4 The rural-Urban fringe
2.4.1 Right at the edge of city
2.4.2 Urban land uses e.g. factories
2.4.3 Rural land uses e.g. farming
2.4.4 There are fewer, larger houses
2.5 Land use isn't the same everywhere.
3 Urban Issues
3.1 Shortage of good quality housing
3.1.1 Housing shortages due to urbanisation occurring to rapidly
3.1.2 Urban Renewal schemes
3.1.2.1 encourage investment to renew derelict inner city land (brownfield site)
3.1.2.2 investment into new housing,services and employment
3.1.3 Encourage people who don't needs the big houses to give them up
3.2 Run down CBD's (Revitalise)
3.2.1 Pedestrianising areas
3.2.2 Improving access; Better public transport & more car parks
3.2.3 Converting derelict warehouses & docks into shops&restaurants
3.2.4 Improving public areas; more parks. Attractive.
3.3 Traffic congestion & pollution from cars
3.3.1 More&more cars in richer countries
3.3.2 Air pollution damages health&buildings
3.3.3 More accidents&traffics jams
3.3.4 Improve public transport
3.3.5 Increase car park charges
3.3.6 Bus priority lanes
3.4 Ethnic segregation
3.4.1 Reasons:
3.4.1.1 People prefer to live close to people with same background
3.4.1.2 People live near to services important for their culture
3.4.2 Solutions:
3.4.2.1 Make sure everyone can excess information
3.4.2.2 Providing interpreters at hospitals and police
3.4.2.3 Respect everyones culture
4 Squatter Settlements
4.1 Built illegally by people who can't afford proper housing
4.2 Can be hard & dangerous - No access to basic services
4.3 Ways to improve them:
4.3.1 Self help schemes - government&local people work together; to improve life. Government supplies materials.
4.3.2 Site and service schemes - pay small amount for ten. Borrow money for materials.
4.3.3 Local authority schemes - Funded by local government help I'm;rove temporary accommodation.
4.4 CASE STUDY: KIBERA
4.4.1 Outskirt of Nairobi, Kenya.
4.4.2 Unemployment is 50%.
4.4.3 2.5 sq miles. 20% have electricity. Only 2 water pipes.
4.4.4 No government hospital or clinic available.
4.4.5 The UN Habitat Program operates an Site and Service Scheme.
4.4.6 KICOSHEP (founded in 1992). runs various services e.g. free youth centre.
4.4.7 World bank installed 1 of the only 2 water pipes.
5 Sustainable Cities
5.1 Sustainable living: is people living now and having the things needed to live, without affecting future generations
5.1.1 Fossil fuels is an example. They add to climate change & are not renewable.
5.2 Case Study - BEDZED
5.2.1 It is in South London.
5.2.2 100 Homes & completed in 2002
5.2.3 On a brownfield site, so no green fields were lost
5.2.4 Mixed community; 50 homes private, 25 social, 25 allocated to key workers e.g. nurses.
5.2.5 Well insulated & triple glazing, reduce heat loss & energy
5.2.6 lots of public transport nearby.
5.2.7 Limited car parking so encourages car sharing
5.2.8 A point for charging electric cars.
5.2.9 Houses have solar panels.
5.2.10 Houses made out of renewable & recycled resources sourced with 35 miles.
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