Families and Households

keighleyandlaw
Mind Map by keighleyandlaw, updated more than 1 year ago
keighleyandlaw
Created by keighleyandlaw about 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Families and Households, created by keighleyandlaw on 29/03/2014.

Resource summary

Families and Households
1 Couples
1.1 DDOL
1.1.1 Parsons- instrumental and expressive roles based on biology- natural
1.1.2 Bott- two types of conjugal roles- segregated and joint- support for the segregated being the most common in Bethnal green in the 1950's ( Young and Wilmott)
1.1.3 Young and Willmott-symmetrical family- march of progress due to the changes in the women's position, geographical mobility, new technology,higher standards of living
1.1.4 Feminist View- reject the march of progress inequalities still exist, these stem from family and society being male dominated, Ann Oakley claims Young and Willmott's claims are exaggerated
1.1.4.1 Stats that show men are now doing more housework however this is more likely to be childcare and there are still huge differences
1.1.4.2 Women are x30 more likely to have been the last one to have done the washing up
1.1.4.3 car maintenance and DIY are the only chores that men spend more time on
1.1.4.4 Oakley- industrialisation led to women being excluded from the workplace when it became disassociated from the home, since the 20th century more women are working but still have the main homemaker role
1.2 Has paid work made an impact on this?
1.2.1 Man Yee Kan- yes- every 10,000 increase in pay, 2hrs less housework a week (not a big amount, still)
1.2.2 Gershuny- yes- gradual change in values, equality lawsand parental role models- stats in support
1.2.3 commercialisation of housework-yes- technology and women working means they can afford it
1.2.4 The Dual burden-no- they are working but still have the homemaker role so have dual burden
1.2.5 Emotion work -no- triple shift means that women have paid work, house and emotional work
1.2.6 Dunne -no - due to strong gender scripts for relationships, this does not occur in lesbian relationships due to the lack of gender script (however if one partner earns lots more)
1.3 Resources and Decision making- Who makes the Decisions?
1.3.1 Kempson- in low income families women forgo own need for children
1.3.2 Edgell- very important, important and less important decisions
1.3.3 Graham- found that lone parents on benefits are better off when they are married
1.3.4 Pooling and allowance systems- Pahl and Vogler- pooling more common for both working parents but men make important decisions
1.4 Domestic Violence
1.4.1 Feminist view- Patriarchal society, women are for venting anger- can explain come patterns but not others
1.4.2 Wilinson/marxist view- can explain the patterns that feminism can't but not why it is mostly men against women - a result of stress caused by unequal capitalist society
2 Childhood
2.1 Childhood is a social construct because it varies over time and across cultures
2.2 Jane Pilcher-Western notion is 'separateness'- golden age of happiness and innocence- completely separate to adulthood- protected and provided for
2.3 cross cultural differences in childhood- childhood is not fixed - children in similar non-industrial societies are treated differently:
2.3.1 They take responsibility at an early age (as shown in Punch's study of Bolivian children- responsibility the home and the community
2.3.2 Less value is placed on children showing obedience to authority (as shown by Firth's study of the Western Pacific, doing what an adult says is up to the child not a right of the adult)
2.3.3 children's sexual behaviour is viewed differently ( as shown by Malinowski - interest and tolerance of children's sexual exploitations in the Trobriand Islands
2.4 Historical differences in childhood
2.4.1 Aries- in the middle ages childhood didn't exist, they were treated like mini adults once they were no longer dependent infants. They had the same responsibilities and punishments as the adults, Evidence for this came from paintings from this this time period that depicts children working and wearing the same clothes. ( what are the problems with using such paintings as evidence?)
2.4.2 Criticism: some sociologists claim childhood was there it was just different
2.4.3 Shorter- high infant mortality encouraged indiffernce and neglect towards children- parents referred to children as 'it' and may have given babies the same name as a dead sibling
2.4.4 Aries- from the 13th century onwards children emerged- schools specialised in teaching the young, children were seen as fragile, growing distinction between adults and children clothing and by the 18th century handbooks for childrearing were available. The 20th century was 'the century of the child'
2.5 Has the position of children improved?
2.5.1 Yes- March of Progress- Aries and Shorter- it is better than it has ever been, children are more valued,better educated, have more rights and enjoy better health. Family has become child centred;parents invest financially and emotionally in children and involve them in decisions
2.5.2 Yes- Healthcare and living standards mean infant mortality rate is much lower
2.5.3 Yes- Smaller family sizes- more money and time spent on them - £186,000 by 21st birthday
2.5.4 Yes-society is child centred - media, leisure etc.
2.5.5 Yes- Adult control is justified in order to safeguard children
2.5.6 No- Conflict View- the opposite is an idealised imaged which ignores important inequalities- adults and society now oppress children and keep them dependent on others
2.5.7 No- Gitten's- age patriarchy- inequality between children and adults
2.5.8 No- Inequalities between children and adults remain- neglect and abuse (childline 20,000 calls a year), control over time and space (road safety and stranger danger less children allowed to walk home from school on their own, control over daily routine- school, homework, play etc) control over bodies ( don't pick your nose,wear your sun hat etc) control over children's access to resources (benefits to parents not children, pocket money, not allowed to work)
2.6 Is Childhood Disappearing?
2.6.1 Yes- Postman- 'disappearing at a dazzling speed' due to fall of print culture and replacement by TV culture- middle ages, 19th century then now
2.6.2 Yes- Children committing adult crimes, wearing adult clothes watching adult TV, leisure activities etc
2.6.3 Yes- Children have more rights now so are becoming more equal to adults- custody cases etc
2.6.4 Yes- Falling birth and death rates means we have an aging population with less children so it could be literally disappearing
2.6.5 No- Opie- lifetime of research into childhood games- shows there is a continued existence of a separate 'childhood'
2.6.6 No- still remain subjects to adult authority even tough they have more right
2.6.7 No- Globalisation- western nation of inequality between children and adults are spreading across the world- campaigns against child labour, making children dependent and oppressed by adults
2.6.8 No- Extension of compulsory and post- compulsory education has made young children dependent for longer
2.6.9 No- Fewer children mean that they become more valued and the childhood stage becomes even more 'separate'
2.6.10 No- children's rights, laws education acts- means it is still a protected time for them, smoking, drinking, working, Education Act, Children Act, Every Child Matter
2.6.11 No- control over bodies control over children's access to resources (benefits to parents not children,pocket money, not allowed to work)
2.6.12 No- control over bodies control over children's ( road safety and stranger danger less children allowed to walk home from school on their own, control over daily routine- school, homework, play etc.
2.6.13 Toxic Childhood- Sue Palmer- it is getting worse- junk food, computer games, lack of social skills, emphasis on testing in school, parents working long hrs etc. UK Youth are near the top for: obesity, self- harm, drug and alcohol abuse, violence, early sexual experience and teenage pregnancy.
3 Perspectives Of The Family
3.1 Functionalists
3.1.1 Society is based on consensus- shared norms and values allows us to meet societies needs
3.1.2 Society is made up of different sub systems (such as the family) that depends on each other, they all need to work for society to run smoothly if one changes they all need to adapt (biological analogy). Family is the building block of this society.
3.1.3 Parsons- pre-industrialisation ( extended family for workforce and feeding / clothing) with industrailisation came a loss of functions now the family only needs to perform primary socialisation of children and the stabilisation of adult personalities. For that a nuclear family is the best fit because it is geographically and social mobile.
3.1.3.1 Evaluation/ criticism- the nuclear family was most common in pre- industrialisation society due to late childbearing and short life expectancy (grandparents not alive), the extended family did not die out with industrailisation, it is still around today ( maybe living separately but still support network)
3.1.4 Murdock- The family performs four functions for society: Stable satsisfaction of sex drive,reproduction of the next generation, socialisaton of the young, meeting it's members economic needs
3.1.4.1 Evaluation/ Criticism- other institutions could perform these functions
3.1.5 Evaluation, rose tinted glasses
3.2 Marxists
3.2.1 Capitalist society is based on an unequal conflict between two social classes, all societies institutions including family help to maintain this inequality
3.2.2 Inheritance of Property- the key factor determining inequality in society. As forces of production developed so did private property and wealth, the need to pass down the wealth led to families. Women are in nuclear families merely to produce children they will only be freed when capitalism ends and the family is abolished as wealth does not need to be passed down.
3.2.3 Ideological Functions- family helps to spread the ruling class ideology that inequality between classes is justified and natural. The family socialises children into understanding hierarchy and accepting orders from those above them. They also believe that the family acts as a haven from the exploitation and alienation of the workforce
3.2.4 Unit of Consumption- capitalist society is kept going by the ruling class making a profit from exploiting the working class. In order for this to happen they need to sell products, the family acts as an agent to push the selling of products- pester power, keeping up with the Joneses, not wanting children to be left out/tease- encourages spending money.
3.2.5 Evaluation/ criticism- it ignores the benefits of family
3.3 Feminists
3.3.1 The family oppresses women via unpaid labour in the home and the threat of violence, it is created by the patriarchal society to benefit men
3.3.2 Liberal- want equality for women and an end to discrimination, they believe that we are moving towards this with acts such as 1975 sex discrimination act, but we need further movements in order to be a fully equal society- March of Progress- men are doing more around the house. HOWEVER other feminists argue that this approach doesn't explain the cause of oppression.
3.3.3 Marxist- women are oppressed in the family as a result of capitalism, they reproduce and socialise the next generation of workers into the ideology of capitalism, they absorb the anger from men that results from the alienation and exploitation of capitalism and they are a reserve workforce army (available for cheap labour but can be let go when they are no longer needed)
3.3.4 Radical- family keeps a patriarchal society and keeps women oppressed, men are the enemy and they exploit women sexually and through the division of domestic labour. The only way forward is separatism, wives in nuclear families are 'sleeping with enemy'. This approach can be criticised as it fails to recognise improvements that have occurred.
3.3.5 Difference- other approaches fail to recognise that you cannot generalise all women's experiences with in the family- race, class etc. all affect women's experience of the family
3.3.6 Criticisms of all approaches- all approaches assume the nuclear family is the dominant family and they ignore diversity. They all claim the family is passive and has no choice in the role the family plays in society or their own lives, other approaches such as post-modern believe family members have more active choice in this.
4 Demography
4.1 Births + Immigration = Increase in population size Deaths +Emmigration = Decrease in Populaton size
4.1.1 Immigration= movement into an area Emigration = movement out of an area
4.1.1.1 Net Migration= the difference between the two
4.2 Total Fertility Rate: the average number of children, women have in their fertile years (15-44), this has risen slightly since 2001 but is still much lower than in this past.
4.3 Birth Rate: number of births per 1000 of the population per year, there has been a long term decline in the UK since 1900 but there have been a few fluctuations- post war, 1960's baby boom.
4.4 Why it is Decreasing?
4.4.1 women are remaining childless and are having children later
4.4.2 Changes in the position of women- (legal, attitudes, paid employment, feminism, educational, abortion, divorce- resulting in more than one opportunity for women)
4.4.3 Decline in the infant mortality rate- (number of infants who die before their first birthday) so need to have less to ensure survival of children. This is a result of improved sanitation, better nutrition, better knowledge of hygiene, improved services for mothers, less mothers working , medical improvements such as immunisaton.
4.4.4 Children are an economic liability- laws banning working and changing norms- financial pressures put people off £186,000 until 21
4.4.5 Child centeredness- unique time, separatness etc. quality not quantity of children
4.4.6 Effects of this: more women are likely to work as they have smaller families to look after creating more dual earning families, dependency ratio number of younger working population is decreasing meaning there are less to provide taxes etc. to cover the older dependent populations pensions etc. however children are also dependents so less children reduce the dependency ratio.
4.4.7 Improved nutrition- changed number of TB and resistance of infection
4.4.8 Medical Improvements - antibiotics, immunisation, midwifery, maternity services, by-pass surgery
4.4.9 Public Health measures and environmental improvments- hoiousing, food, water, clean air, etc
4.4.10 Social changes- decline of dangerous occupations (mining), smaller fmailies reduce rate of transmission of illness, greater public knowledge of causes, higher incomes.
4.5 Death Rate: number of deaths per 1000 of the population per year, number of deaths has remained the same but the population is increasing so rate is going down, declined since the 1900- flucuation due to the wars. Main cause of death used to be infectious disease (smallpox etc) it has now been replaced by 'diseases of affluence' heart disease etc
4.6 Life Expectancy- for males in 1900 it was 50 and in 2007 it was 77, key reason is change in infant mortality rate, reigional and class differences still remain, Northerners, scotish an dloer classes have the lowest.
4.7 the aging population- due to the fact that their are fewer younger people and more older people
4.7.1 Due to and ageing population it causes problems within society like : strain on services, increase in one person pensioner households , the dependency ratio has been offset as there are more old dependent than children, the social construct of 'aging as a problem' and social policy has been strained as more old people means more accomodation and this has helped to rise retirement age
4.8 Patterns
4.8.1 Most 20th century population grew naturally- more births than deaths
4.8.2 Until the 1980's more people were emigrating than immigrating
4.8.3 Until the war the Irish were the biggest group of immigrants to this country (for economic reasons), followed by Eastern European Jews fleeing persecution and those of British decent very few were non-white.
4.8.4 In the 1950's black immigrants from the Caribbean begin to arrive followed by South Asians in the 1960's and 70's this led to more diverse society- in 2001 7.9% of the population were minority ethnics
4.8.5 1962- 1990- sever restrictions on non-white immigration, EU settlers made up the majority
4.8.6 Since the 1900's most people emigrate to USA and old commonwealth countries (Australia etc)
4.8.7 Key reasons are economic (push factors such as recession and pull factors such as more jobs)
4.8.8 Due to birth rate decreasing without immigration our population would be shrinking
4.8.9 Passage schemes led to a lot of emigration, particularly to old commonwealth countries they paid part or all costs of migration- £10 pomes, etc. in order to boost population of these countries
4.8.10 Recently there has been increasing numbers of immigration and emigration, 2004 was the highest net inflow of people since 1991, key reason was expansion of the EU to include ten new member states- 4/5 of the increase came from these countries Poland, majority coming in and out of the country were young (studying and work)
4.8.11 Effects of patterns- dependency ratio- immigrants are mainly working age meaning they bring dependency ratio down however immigrant women tend to have more children and are of childbearing age therefore they bring it down again- complex relationships
4.9 Internal Migration- it is important to also look at migration within the UK, during the industrial revolution there was a population shift from the South to the North for industrial jobs- rural to urban. During the 20th century these industries began to decline and new industries developed causing a shift southwards, recently this shift has moved to London and the Southeast with the emergence of city jobs.
5 Changing Family Patterns
5.1 Increase in divorce- doubled from 1961-1969 and again to 1972, peaked in 1993 and is slightly falling, 40% of marriages will end in divorce, increase in number of petitions coming from women- big change. More likely to divorce if they had a child before marriage or if thye have been married before. Other solutions such as a legal separation, desertion and empty shell marriage are now less popular.
5.2 Reasons for increase in divorce
5.2.1 Changes in the law- makes it easier to obtain( equalising and widening the grounds for divorce, making it cheaper)
5.2.2 Declining stigma and changing attitudes
5.2.3 Secularisation- religion has less influence on society now, those with the lowest levels of divorce are those who have a strong religious backgrounds
5.2.4 Rising expectations of marriage- functionalist's claim this comes from the ideology of love ans romance, if love dies there is no point in marriage, it is no longer seen as a binding contract but a relationship of fulfilment. Functionalists still see positively- most people still get married and get remarried if they divorce. Feminists say this ignores female oppression.
5.2.5 Changes in the position of women- improvements in their economical positions means they are less dependent on men. More likely to be in paid work, equal pay and discrimination laws narrow the pay gap, greater success in education gets them a better job, welfare means they don't need a husband. Feminists criticise this is as they claim not enough change has happened yet. Role of feminism.
5.2.6 Dual roles- feminists claim due to paid work and housework it creates a new conflict between spouses and leads to divorce.
5.3 Changing patterns of parnternships
5.3.1 Marriage- fewer people marry, half the number from 1970, people marry later,less marry in church. Reasons are the same as divorce, but also divorce puts people off marriage and reason for the number of remarriages is because of the number of divorces.
5.3.2 Cohabitation- over 2 million in the UK, double now than 1986 will double again by 2021. Decline in stigma attached to sex outside marriage, career, secularisation. Doesn't always mean it is instead of marriage, for some it is a step before marriage.
5.3.3 Same Sex relationships- 5-7% of the population have same sex relationships, is this really an increase? Could just be that people feel confident to 'come out' now. Social acceptance, stigma, laws of consensual age, civil partnership act, adoption, chosen families. However, some wish to retain their 'difference' status.
5.3.4 One- person Households- account for 3/10 households, half are pension age, pensioner one person families have doubled since the 60's and non-pensioner one person households have trembled. Males are most likely to live alone. Result of divorce- children stay with mother, decline in marriage means more are living single, 'creative singlehood', deliberate choice or not enough partners. Some are just living apart together
5.4 Meaning of increase
5.4.1 The New Right- it is undesirable as it undermines traditional nuclear family and leaves boys without a male role model- causes societies problems
5.4.2 Feminists- desirable- women are breaking from the oppression of patriarchal society
5.4.3 Post Modernists- gives individuals the choice and freedom
5.4.4 Functionalists- does not prove that marriage is under threat, people still remarry, can be a step before marriage etc
5.4.5 Interactionalists- means different things to be different people- different experiences
5.5 Changing patterns of childbearing and child rearing: 4/10 are born outside of marriage, women are having children later, having fewer of them and more are remaining childless
5.6 Reasons for changing patterns of child bearing and child rearing: see reasons for increase in cohabitation and divorce, changing position of women and decrease in birth rate
5.7 Lone Parent Families- 24% of all families, 90% headed by women, biggest group is never married mothers, child from these families are more than twice as likely to be in poverty than those with two parents. Increased due to increase in divorce and separation, stigma, secularisation etc. Mostly women headed as expensive, custody, limit parental involvement. Cashmore- working mothers chose this route for welfare.
5.8 New Right- ( Charles Murray) and Lone Parent Families: over generous welfare state created a 'perverse incentive' that rewards irresponsible behaviour thus creating a dependency culture, the answer is to abolish welfare. This view is strongly criticised as welfare is far from generous: lack of affordable childcare, inadequate benefits, most are women who earn less and failure of fathers to pay maintenance.
5.9 Step Families 10% of families with children most have children from women's previous relationship, similar to nuclear families in all aspects but are at greater risk of poverty, face problems with loyality and contact with parents, difference of experience in these families they are not all the same.
5.10 Ethnic Differences
5.10.1 Black Caribbean and African- people have a higher rate of lone parent (female headed) families, higher than any other ethnicity. Linked to slavery (male was removed from family), high rates of unemployment in black males (making them unable to provide). These views have been criticised as some see it as a result of the high value place on independence by black women. Similarly the statistics may actually be misleading- these women are actually in supportive non- cohabiting relationships.
5.10.2 Asian- larger family sizes then average and sometimes contains 3 generations though mostly they are nuclear. Larger households are a result of more people at childbearing age. Large sizes could be due to value placed on extended family but also practical reasons such as support and a house for immigration.
5.11 Is the Extended Family extinct
5.11.1 Yes- Charles- Swansea- classic three generation family all living under the same roof is all but extinct
5.11.2 Yes- Parsons/functionalists- extended family disappeared with industrialisation due to functions it needs to fulfil for society. Now it is just nuclear.
5.11.3 Extended family continues to play a part an important role for many people today providing both practical and emotional support, however this family is very different to the extended family that parsons discussed- nether the less obligation still remains strong.
5.11.4 No- Charles- Swansea- Exception with Bangladeshi families
5.11.5 No- it may have declined but not disappeared, Willmott suggests it continues to exist as a dispersed extended family- support is still strong- phone etc
5.11.6 No- Chamberlain- Caribbean families in the UK- geographically dispersed but provide lots of support of each other, multiple nuclear families- close and frequent contact between siblings, cousins etc particularly with childbearing.
5.11.7 No- Chamberlain- it survives because it performs important functions for members.
5.11.8 No-Bell- middle class financial help from father to son, working class more domestic help from mothers to daughters.
5.11.9 No- Charles- contact stays high between mothers and daughters all their lives- more expected with females than males.
6 Family Diversity
6.1 Is their family diversity in our society and is it a good or bad thing?
6.1.1 Chester- Neo- conventional family- nuclear family has not disappeared but has changed into the neo-conventional family it is not a problem to society. It is similar to Young and Wilmott's symmetrical family with dual earning and equal DDOL. Most people still aspire to be in a nuclear family but due to later settling, cohabite first. Although births outside marriage are on the increase most of these children are brought up by two parents. It is all an exaggeration.
6.1.2 Bad- Functionalists- Parsons- family needs to perform certain functions, a nuclear family is the best family type to fulfill these functions so diversity is a bad thing- nuclear family is best for geographical and social mobility. Instrumental and expensive roles. This keeps society stable; other family types cannot fulfill these functions so society will not run smoothly if diversity increases.
6.1.3 Bad- New Right- firmly opposed to diversity, only one correct type of family- married couples with children with distinct male and female roles. This is natural based on biology; family is the cornerstone of society. The decline of the traditional nuclear family and increase in diversity is the cause of society is the cause of social problems such as crime rate. Greater risks of poverty, educational, failure, crime and health problems for children born to unmarried couples. Marriage is the essential basis for bringing up children. Lone parents are a threat to children; they cannot discipline properly and place a burden on welfare. A mother working is wrong, caring for family should be first priority. Harry Benson- family breakdown is higher with unmarried parents. They oppose taxes and welfare state saying it acts as an incentive- dependency culture and discouraging men from supporting their families.
6.1.4 Good- life course analysis- flexibility and variation in people's family lives- choices and decisions that they make, these vary from person and in-depth interviews must be used to understand such choices.
6.1.5 Good- Rapoports- five types of diversity in our society -CLOGS- culture, life- stage, organisational, generational,social class
6.1.6 Good- New Right and Functionalists- ideas have been criticised by feminists such as Anne Oakley as they claim roles are not based on biology, and that the nuclear family keeps women oppressed and dependent on men. There is also a question as to whether there is any evidence that lone parent families form part of a dependency culture or that children from such families are more likely to be delinquent.
6.1.7 Good- Family Practices- describe the routine of actions, our practices are influenced by the beliefs that we hold about our obligations to the family. Family is not clear cut, the movement towards kinship showed family / non family is becoming blurred.
6.1.8 Good- Giddens- greater choice and more equal relationships between men and women because: contraception- reproduction is not the main reason for relationship and independence for women through work and feminism. Pure relationship- they meet each other's needs and satisfy / are attracted to each other rather than being together for duty or tradition. However, he does acknowledge that they become less stable.
6.1.9 Good- Beck -risk society- tradition has less influence and people have more choice, we are thus more aware of risks. Patriarchal family has been undermined by: greater gender equality and greater individualism. This has led to a negotiated family-equal basis.
6.1.10 Good- Stacey- greater choice has benefited women as it has enabled them to free themselves from patriarchal oppression and meet their own needs. Divorce extended families- female dominated- ex-in-laws or ex wife and new partner. Based on choices and what fits.
6.1.11 Good- Weeks- Long term shift in attitudes,sexual morality is a matter of choice, the church and state have also lost most of their power in morality. However most still marry, if divorce- remarry so some tradition remains.
7 Social Policy
7.1 Policies that affect the family (even if they are not directly related)
7.2 Key examples of policies- China's One child Policy, Nazi Germany, Russian 'abolish the family'
7.3 Perspectives Of Policies
7.3.1 Functionalist- society is built on harmony and consensus (shared values), free from conflict, the state acts for society as a whole and social policies are good for all. Family policies help the family to fulfill their functions effectively and make it better for their members. Fletcher- introduction of health, education and housing policies in the years since industrial revolution help families to perform their functions- NHS means the family is better able to take care of individuals when they are sick. Criticism- do all members of the family benefit? March of Progress making family better and better but this isn't always the case (cutting of welfare and benefits)
7.3.2 New Right- nuclear family with traditional DDOL can take care of its members therefore social policy should not undermine this natural family. They criticise many policies for undermining self reliance of the family such as welfare or housing for unmarried mothers. Murray- we reward irresponsibility or antisocial behaviour with a 'perverse incentive', fathers see their families will be supported by the state, council houses encourage teen pregnancy, lone parents encouraged by welfare- lack of paternal authority causes problems for society and encourages self reliance. They believe the state should advocate policies to support the traditional nuclear family- tax credits that favour, child support, making absent fathers pay. The less the state interferes in family the better (disagree with functionalists). Criticised by feminists as it is trying to keep the patriarchal family where women are oppressed, is patriarchy natural. Cutting benefits = more poverty. Conservative.
7.3.3 New Labour- support traditional family, favours a strengthening of the institution of marriage as it is best for bringing up children and has cut some lone parent funding. BUT they take a positive view on social policy, some interventions can improve life in families: adoption (right to adopt is the same for non-married and homosexual couples), welfare, taxation and minimum wage (lifting families and children out of poverty). Means testing means only low income gets.
7.3.4 Feminism- conflict view- society is patriarchal and benefits men at women's expense, policies just widen the inequality in DDOL and women's subordination. Self Fulfilling Prophecy (social policy is based on what family they see as normal then the policies reinforce this family type therefore it then becomes normal). Social policies assume the patriarchal (roles) nuclear family is ideal therefore social policies reinforce patriarchal relationships making it difficult to live in different family types. Tax and benefit policies assume husbands are main wage-earners and wives are dependent on them (reinforces women's dependence on men). Even when policies appear to support women they are really keeping them oppressed (maternity leave, child benefit, welfare etc. to women to keep children that is her role). Familistic (women should be dependent on me) and individualistic (separate entitlement to state welfare) gender regimes- we are moving to individualistic.
7.3.5 Marxism- society is split into capitalist and workers, all institutions help to maintain class inequality and exploitation. Family polices do not benefit all members of society equally, policies serve capitalism. Policies that do help the lower class are due to struggle however there is not a steady March of Progress towards better welfare policies and any positive policies are easily lost. Most policies benefit capitalist class.
7.3.6 Donzelot- policy is a form of state power over families,Foucault's surveillance concept- power can be found in all relationships and interactions. Social workers, health visitors and doctors use their knowledge to control and change families. problem Families are targeted for improvement- lower class ( that's why policies focus on these families) parenting classes for delinquency / truancy etc. keeping power and control. Criticised by other approaches as it does not explain who benefits from the surveillance?
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