1.1 different people in different
the social world in different
1.1.1 so sociologists can only
describe reality from the
viewpoint of those who
create & define it.
1.2 people are different from inanimate objects (they
have consciousness, ability to think, reflect & act
instead of simply react)
1.2.1 people cannot be studied
in the same way that
objects, plants & rocks can
1.2.2 needs a more subtle, flexible approach where
social behaviour is described in terms of
meanings & interpretations people give to
1.3 argue that sociology cannot predict
behaviour of conscious human beings.
Behavioural rules in society are
determined by context (changes
depending the situation people find
1.3.1 eg : teachers tells a student to be quiet, the student's response will vary depending on whether the
instruction was given in the classroom/in the street.
220.127.116.11 therefore how people react to the behaviour of others depends on their understanding of the social context in which that behaviour takes place.
2.1 Harris (2005a)
2.1.1 different between
18.104.22.168.1 uses terms like "cause", "law",
"fact" to convey idea that human
behaviour is governed by forces
that individuals social actor is
powerless to resist.
22.214.171.124.2 explanations of behaviours are
from "without" (not interacting
with the people & behaviour
126.96.36.199.3 research is "goal-based"
188.8.131.52.3.1 objective is to test whether a hypothesis
184.108.40.206.3.2 research design is rigid, strong &
directs researcher through every
stage of the process.
220.127.116.11.1 explanations of behaviours are made from
"within" (how people understand
behaviour which they are involved in)
18.104.22.168.1.1 by taking advantage of human ability
to empathise. (take role of the other) &
experience the world in the same way
that it is experienced by those who are
22.214.171.124.1.1.1 eg : to truly
understand what it
means to be
126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52 allows vital insight into why people behave as
184.108.40.206.2 focuses on collection of qualitative data.
220.127.116.11.2.1 information tells the researcher something
about the experiences & feelings of the
people being studied.
18.104.22.168.2.2 less reliable.
22.214.171.124.2.3 greater validity (reveals much more
about how & why people live their
lives in particular ways)
126.96.36.199.3 research is "goal-free"
188.8.131.52.3.1 Lindauer (2005)
184.108.40.206.3.1.1 Researcher can explore whatever
they/the people they are studying is
220.127.116.11.3.2 research is emergent
18.104.22.168.3.2.1 takes shape as data collection & analysis proceed.
22.214.171.124.3.3 exploratory framework is flexible, weak & bends to
take account of new research ideas & developments.
3.1 different approach to research
4 Oberg (1999)
4.1 emergent research design built around 4 ideas.
A research issue is identified and a research question takes place.
4.1.2 Data Collection
- This research design is non-linear (it does not begin with a hypothesis & end with confirmation/rejection).
- Researcher is not looking for definite answers, so a research question is explored from different perspectives (those of the people being researches/of the researcher themselves)
126.96.36.199 Firestone (1987)
188.8.131.52.1 Reality is socially constructed
definitions of the situation,
researcher must use a research
design that offers the greatest
opportunities to capture this
subjective sense of reality.
4.1.3 Data Analysis
184.108.40.206 Schultz et al (1996)
220.127.116.11.1 data analysis actually takes place
throughout the research process,
rather than after the data has been
18.104.22.168.1.1 it involves a feedback loop where analysis
of collected data is used to inform further
data collection which in turn informs
further analysis. where there is no
requirement to collect data to test a
hypothesis, analysis is both descriptive &
seen from the viewpoint of both researcher
- Research is generally non judgemental.
- Readers are left to draw their own conclusions.
22.214.171.124 Firestone (1987)
126.96.36.199.1 main objective is to help the reader
understand how people see their
world & situation.
188.8.131.52 Schwandt (2002)
184.108.40.206.1 social research involves not so much a problem
to be solved as a dilemma/mystery that
requires interpretation & self understanding.