2 Piaget 1956 - 3 Mountains Task (perspective and acclusion)
Passed at age 4, but at a higher level (pass more of the time/more than 50%)
3 Hughes 1968 - Policeman task
In a 4 wall cross, hide from policeman, do not know where to hide unless they physically do it and cannot see the policeman 'if I can't see you, you can't see me'
4 Flavell et al - Appearance Reality Task
Sponge that looks like a rock, show to children at a distance, ask what it is = ROCK
then let them touch it, what is it = SPONGE
What did you think it was when I first showed you?
Age 3/Early 4 yo --> Sponge
Late 4/Age 5 yo --> Rock
5 Theory of mind is the same regardless of who you are talking to
6 ToM = the ability to understand that
others have different
opinions/emotions/views of the world
and that they act based upon them.
(Not everyone thinks/is the same as you