How much did nationalism grow by 1850?

Thomas Bunting
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Thomas Bunting
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How much did nationalism actually grow by 1850?
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How much did nationalism grow by 1850?
1 Economic
1.1 The idea of nat in economics grew mainly post-1835 with the creation of the zollverien
1.1.1 A customs union created a sense of unity as firms would trade among states with ease, due to free trade agreement, thus taking away the idea of borders across states
1.1.2 However, only 25 out of the 25 states were members of the zollverien which meant it helped divide the states as well as unite them
1.1.3 Historians argue that the zollverien was a "mighty lever of german unification" showing it must have had an impact on the growth of nationalism
1.2 The Development of railways in he 1830s had an effect on nationalism as it ended isolation and enabled urbanisation
1.2.1 From 1800-1850 Munich population 30,000-110,000. This helped the growth of liberal and nationilistic ideas as people were closer together which allowed the sharing of these ideas with ease
1.2.2 It also had an impact as urbanisation caused poor living conditions which caused civil unrest among the working class who wanted change and were more likely now to protest and demonstrate for change.
1.3 In evaulation, changes to the economy dirrectly affect businessmen first therefore something like the creation of the zolllveirien will increase support from business owners as they'll have seen ncrease in proit. Industrilisation helped the spread od ideas which wold have made an increase in suppoters, also it reduced the peasantry's standard of living making them more likely to demand change in the form of unifcation. This all shows economics factors created a growth of nationalism within society
2 Middle Class
2.1 The growth of nationalism was aided by education and ability to go to university
2.1.1 This is due to the creation of student socities were mainly many liberal professors and student went to meet and talk about ideas such as nationalism and unification.
2.1.1.1 However, even though the creation of these showed interest in these idea they were banned by metternich in the six acts thus unable to inact change
2.1.2 Watburt Book festival in 1817 shows there was support for nationalism from the educated, as 5000 students and professors went burned book in protest of the divisive vienna settlement
2.1.2.1 This showed there was early outrage against the seperation of states
2.1.2.1.1 This shows that even from 30 years before the 1848 revolution there was obvious support from the educated middle class for unification and nationalism, thus meaning Metternich did created the Six Acts in 1819 to repress these ideas, this was somewhat successful througout the 1820's as there is not much evidence of major growth within that decade
2.1.2.2 This may also have meant that they were against the idea of the Vienna settlement setting up the bund full of unelected officials meaning they believed in more liberal ideas like democracy
2.2 In evaluation, it is clear that even by 1817 there was support from the middle class in education but however it isn't clear if they were actually able t effect the growth of nationalism out with their soceiities due to dislike from Metternich therefore it clear there was always support from the educated middle class but their views we suppressed by the by the rulers thus unable to cause a rise in support of nationalism. But al ot of the vocal support came from those in education
3 Politics
3.1 574 delegates met in the Frankfurt Assembly with the aim of creating a unified Germany
3.1.1 This shows a growth in nationalism as it was an elected body create to decide and disscus the unification of Germany
3.1.2 However, too much time was spent on not significant issues, such as the definition of Germany, this meant the Asssembly was unable to actually achieve anything in terms of major support from the people before it was shutdown
3.1.3 But this assembly does show there was increased support for nationalism, within the political sphere, as they did try and create a unified Germany when they offered Federick William Germany in 1849
3.2 Federick William was usually keen on the idea of a united Germany - but one of his own creation, which would give increased power to Prussia where they'd control the army & foreign policy
3.2.1 However, a problem to this was that Austria acted furiously to the idea of increased powers to their enemies in Prussia
3.2.2 Faced with Austrian oppostion the Prussian's backed down and the Treaty of Olmutz was signed in 1850. This agreement signalled that the events of 1848 had been forgotten and the ideals of german nationalism were gone
3.3 In evaluation, Austrian strength within politics affcted unification as the idea of them opposing Prussia destroyed the though of Prussia demanding unity. This shows us that even though there was a growth of signs for nationalism by 1848 within politics, Austria and inactiveness delayed these signs from having any effect by 1850
4 Society
4.1 Peasants formed the largest group in German society and could have a great influence on success of nationlism
4.1.1 As urban populations grew there was an increasing demand for food and fewer peasants working in the countryside to make it and alongside a poor harvest in 1846&47 food shortages and increacising proces resulted - this coming at a time of unemployment due to a recession
4.1.1.1 This caused resentment against the ruling class as their lives were getting worse thus many peasants supported unity as they believed change was the only way their lives could improve
4.1.1.2 However, there was no call for democracy, nationalism or nationalism in their demand they just wanted to survive and they believed a unified govt might improve their conditions. This showing that even though there was increased support for unification it didn't necessarily mean a growth of nationalism
4.2 It is also clear that it wasn't just the middle classs who wanted change as the Hambach festival of 1832 had 25,000 people of all classes to demonstrate in support or German unity and freedom
4.2.1 This shows that even though most of the support came from liberal, educated middle class people it wasn't a class issue - there was national support from all classes in society
4.3 In evaluation, it is clear that in society there was huge levels of discontent and by the beginning of 1848 with a combination of demand for working and middle class and the peasantry they all had one thing in common - change. This change was seen by some in the idea of unity thus there was a growth in nationalism. This shows us that poor governance and resecion caused a agrowth in support for unity and this want for change is a cause of the 1848 revolution
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