Variety of living organisms

jeacur
Mind Map by jeacur, updated more than 1 year ago
jeacur
Created by jeacur almost 6 years ago
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Section1.2 of the IGCSE specification
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Variety of living organisms
1 Animals
1.1 multicellular organisms
1.2 cells do not contain chloroplasts
1.2.1 are not able to carry out photosynthesis
1.3 have no cell walls
1.4 usually have nervous coordination and are able to move from one place to another
1.5 often store carbohydrate as glycogen
1.6 EXAMPLES
1.6.1 mammals
1.6.1.1 humans
1.6.2 insects
1.6.2.1 housefly
1.6.2.2 mosquito
2 Plants
2.1 multicellular organisms
2.2 cells contain chloroplants
2.2.1 cells are able to carry out photosynthesis
2.3 cells have cellulose cell walls
2.4 they store carbohydrates as starch or sucrose
2.5 EXAMPLES
2.5.1 flowering plants
2.5.1.1 maize
2.5.2 herbaceous legume
2.5.2.1 peas
2.5.2.2 beans
3 Fungi
3.1 not able to carry out photosynthesis
3.2 body is usually organised into a mycelium made from thread-like structures called hyphae, which contain many nuclei
3.3 some examples are single-celled
3.4 cell walls made of chitin
3.5 they feed by extracellular secretion of digestive enzymes onto food material and absorption of the organic products
3.5.1 This is known as saprotrophic nutrition
3.6 they may store carbohydrate as glycogen
3.7 EXAMPLES
3.7.1 Mucor
3.7.1.1 has the typical fungal hyphal structure
3.7.2 yeast
3.7.2.1 single celled
4 Bacteria
4.1 microscopic single celled organisms
4.2 have a cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm and plasmids
4.3 no nucleus but contain a circular chromosome of DNA
4.4 some bacteria carry out photosynthesis but most feed off other dead or living organisms
4.5 EXAMPLES
4.5.1 Lactobacillus bulgaricus
4.5.1.1 a rod shaped bacterium used in the production of yoghurt from milk
4.5.2 Pneumococcus
4.5.2.1 a spherical bacterium that acts as the pathogen causing pneumonia
5 Protoctists
5.1 microscopic single celled organisms
5.2 Some have features like an animal cell
5.2.1 Amoeba
5.2.1.1 which lives in pond water
5.3 Others have chloroplasts and are more like plants
5.3.1 Chlorella
5.4 A pathogenic example, causing malaria
5.4.1 Plasmodium
6 Viruses
6.1 small particles, smaller than bacteria
6.2 They are parasitic and can reproduce only inside living cells
6.3 They infect every type of living organism
6.4 They have a wide variety of shapes and sizes
6.5 They have no cellular structure but have a protein coat and contain one type of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA
6.6 EXAMPLES
6.6.1 the tobacco mosaic virus that causes discolouring of the leaves of tobacco plants by preventing the formation of chloroplasts
6.6.2 the influenza virus that causes 'flu'
6.6.3 the HIV virus that causes AIDS
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