Imperialism, war and revolution

Paula Camacho
Mind Map by Paula Camacho, updated more than 1 year ago
Paula Camacho
Created by Paula Camacho over 4 years ago
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Mind Map on Imperialism, war and revolution, created by Paula Camacho on 01/20/2017.

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Imperialism, war and revolution
  1. THE GREAT POWERS IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY
    1. LIBERALISM AND AUTHORITARIANISM IN EUROPE
      1. Political systems varied across Europe.
        1. Countries with Authoritarian Political Systems
          1. Governed by monarchies and counted with parliaments, who couldn't oppose to king's absolute power.
            1. Military presence in everyday life.
              1. Ethnic and cultural diversity.
                1. Little rights for population.
          2. Countries with Liberal Political Systems
            1. Strenghtened separation of powers.
              1. New rights recognised.
                1. Male universal suffrage was achieved.
                  1. Socialist parties started to be represented in Parliament.
        2. RUSSIAN AUTOCRACY
          1. Tsar (emperor) had all power and was the highest religious authority.
            1. Any sign of opposition was automatically repressed.
              1. 1861: Alexander II decreed the ''Emancipation of serfs''
                1. This gave them more freedom, but didn't improve their economic situation.
                  1. There was ethnic diversity.
                    1. Policy of Russianisation: imposition of Russian language and culture to foreigners.
          2. UNITED STATES: BIRTH OF A NEW POWER
            1. In the 19th century, there was a great territorial expansion in the US.
              1. New territories colonised by white settlers, which led to conflict with natives.
                1. The few surviving natives were confined in reservations.
                  1. While southern states were in favor of slavery, northern ones had abolished it.
                    1. Lincoln was made president in 1860
                      1. 11 southern states seceded and made into a confederacy.
                        1. These states were considered rebellious, which led to the American Civil War (1861-1865)
                          1. The northern states won, abolishing slavery in the whole country.
                            1. Black people won some rights, and southern states applied a policy of racial segregation.
            2. MEIJI ERA IN JAPAN
              1. 1867-1914: Japan went from being a feudal, traditional country to being an industrialised and westernised one.
                1. 1867: Emperor recovered power from feudal lords, and the Meiji Era started.
                  1. Economy and social aspects were all westernised.
                    1. Trade agreements were reached with US and Europe.
            3. THE RISE OF IMPERIALISM
              1. WHAT IS IMPERIALISM?
                1. Policy of extending a country's domination over other regions.
                  1. Mother country conquered the colonies.
                    1. This began to be applied worldwide in the 19th century.
                      1. Some countries, like Spain or Portugal, were already Colonial Powers in the Early Modern Period.
                        1. In 1870 there was a new phase of expansion of imperialism.
                          1. By 1800, 35% of land was controlled by Europe and US.
                            1. By 1914, an 84% was controlled by them.
                2. ECONOMIC AND DEMOGRAPHIC FACTORS
                  1. Industrialisation
                    1. Europeans looked for areas to invest capital in.
                      1. Also wanted to find cheap raw materials and sell their industrial products.
                    2. Migration
                      1. Population grew; not enough work available.
                        1. Europeans travelled to colonies.
                    3. RELIGIOUS FACTORS
                      1. Conversion
                        1. Europeans considered natives' beliefs ''primitive''.
                          1. They tried to convert them to Christianity to justify Imperialism.
                            1. Hundreds of Catholic and Protestant missions founded.
                      2. POLITICAL FACTORS
                        1. Strategic Goals
                          1. Imperial expansion also motivated geo-political interests.
                          2. Competition
                            1. Competition among great powers over the colonisation and benefit of new areas.
                            2. Prestige
                              1. Tried to influence public opinion.
                            3. IDEOLOGICAL & SCIENTIFIC FACTORS
                              1. Racism
                                1. Westerns thought natives were inferior & needed to be civilised.
                                2. Exploration
                                  1. Scientific expeditions made over the world.
                              2. THE GREAT COLONIAL EMPIRES
                                1. BRITISH EMPIRE
                                  1. Largest empire, with India as the most valuable colony.
                                    1. Tried linking their colonies in Africa.
                                      1. This led to a dispute with France (Fashoda Incident, 1898)
                                        1. Also possessed Canada and much of Oceania.
                                  2. FRENCH EMPIRE
                                    1. Second largest empire.
                                      1. In Africa, they had Algeria and Tunisia.
                                        1. Created a protectorate in Morocco.
                                          1. Possessed Indochina (Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam) in Asia.
                                    2. GERMANY AND ITALY
                                      1. They began their imperialist expansion later.
                                        1. Acquired colonies in Africa.
                                          1. Belgium conquered Congo.
                                            1. Conflict between powers appeared.
                                              1. Met at the Berlin Conference (1884-1885) to resolve it.
                                                1. This resulted in the division of much of Africa.
                                      2. RUSSIA
                                        1. Conquered Siberia.
                                          1. Their frontiers reached China, Himalayas and India.
                                        2. UNITED STATES
                                          1. They defeated Spain in 1898.
                                            1. Occupied Philippines and Puerto Rico, then Cuba.
                                              1. Created economic dependence among Latin American Countries.
                                          2. JAPAN
                                            1. Conflict with Russia and China.
                                              1. Conquered Taiwan, Korea and took of Manchuria, in China.
                                          3. COLONIAL RULE
                                            1. TYPES OF RULE IN COLONIAL EXPANSION
                                              1. In colonies, the colonised nation lost sovereignity to the colonising power.
                                                1. In protectorates, the colonial power controlled foreign policy and the wealth of the colony.
                                                  1. Domestic policy was taken care of by natives.
                                                    1. In Spheres of influence, independent countries were forced to give trade advantages to colonial powers.
                                                      1. Modern government and political organisation introduced in colonies.
                                                        1. Colonial borders often drawn without considering tribal and religious differences of the local population.
                                                          1. This led to conflict, that in some places lasts until today.
                                              2. ECONOMIC EXPLOITATION
                                                1. Natural resources exploited by mother countries.
                                                  1. Colonial economies based mainly on agriculture and mineral extraction.
                                                    1. Private companies took native land and created plantations.
                                                      1. Industries in colonies were not the main focus of mother countries, so they were poor.
                                                        1. Indigenous people were a source of cheap labour.
                                                          1. Colonial powers built transport infrastructures to benefit their needs.
                                                            1. Local population didn't get any benefit.
                                                2. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL EFFECTS
                                                  1. Demography
                                                    1. In some places, local people didn't have previous contact with elsewhere.
                                                      1. No inmunity to diseases brought by colonisers.
                                                        1. Colonisation had a disastrous impact.
                                                    2. Traditional society
                                                      1. Transformed by colonisation.
                                                        1. Colonisers formed an elite class of colonial society.
                                                          1. They controlled economy, high positions in business and government.
                                                            1. Natives considered inferior and were marginalised.
                                                      2. Culture
                                                        1. Western culture spread among natives.
                                                          1. Their elite studied in European universities and were westernised.
                                                            1. Acculturation had a great influence everywhere.
                                                              1. Beliefs, language, clothes... became westernised.
                                                    3. THE CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I
                                                      1. BISMARCKIAN ALLIANCE SYSTEM AND ARMED PEACE (1870-1914)
                                                        1. After German unification, politics in Europe dominated by Otto Von Bismarck.
                                                          1. The Bismarckian Alliance system had 2 objectives
                                                            1. Isolating France, which had previously lost territory and was trying to regain it.
                                                              1. Maintaining equilibrium with Balkans.
                                                                1. Austria and Russia had differences with them, which could lead to war.
                                                                  1. Germany's pacts were:
                                                                    1. Dual Alliance (Austria and Hungary)
                                                                      1. Triple Alliance (Italy added)
                                                                      2. League of 3 emperors (Austro-Hungary and Russia)
                                                                      3. After death of German emperor, his successor favored a more aggresive European policy.
                                                                        1. Bismarck was replaced, which led to the beginning of the Armed Peace (1890-1914)
                                                                          1. European powers divided in 2 military blocks:
                                                                            1. Triple Alliance
                                                                              1. Triple Entente (France, Britain, Russia)
                                                                                1. Fears from both sides led to arms race.
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