9. Personal Conflict

Charlotte Peacock
Mind Map by Charlotte Peacock, updated more than 1 year ago
Charlotte Peacock
Created by Charlotte Peacock about 6 years ago


AS - Level A Level History Revision (4. Dispute with Thomas Becket) Mind Map on 9. Personal Conflict, created by Charlotte Peacock on 04/10/2014.

Resource summary

9. Personal Conflict
1 The meeting at Freteval in 1170 saw compromise reached on a personal level - the C of C were not discussed.
2 Barber: 'a clash of personalities rather than one of high principle
3 Many historians view the stubborn and arrogant personalities of both Archbishop and King as being to blame for the escalation of the dispute
4 Becket
4.1 Becket missed the point that he was purely appointed as archbishop because he was a loyal servant for the purpose of bringing the church under control
4.2 Lack of support from the bishops suggests that this was Becket's dispute only
4.3 Becket was vain and stubborn and believed that his office made him equal with the king
4.3.1 Too arrogant to play by Henry's rules Did his arrogance cloud his judgement? e.g at C of C initially supporting the constitutions then changing his mind - he just expected the bishops to follow him
4.4 William fitzStephen: 'the king regarded it an affront that... the archbishop should withdraw from his obedience and oppose him'
4.5 From the outset Becket took a confrontational approach to Henry
4.5.1 Resigning as chancellor in 1162 without consulting Henry
4.5.2 In 1163 opposing the Sheriff's Aid tax
4.6 During his time in exile he excommunicated his political rivals
4.7 Still not willing to compromise after Freteval - had an 'agenda' on his return, excommunicating those involved in YH's coronation
4.7.1 Becket continually provoked Henry, always refusing to cooperate
4.8 Warren: 'He brought a violent death upon himself because he could not bring himself to admit that his reading of the situation had been mistaken'
4.9 Henry stripped Becket of his castles and baronies in Berkhamsted and Eye, in response to the archbishop's intolerance. In revenge, Becket disallowed the marriage of Henry II's brother William FitzEmpress to the wealthy Isabella, on the grounds that they were related (consanguinity). William died in Jan 1164, allegedly due to a broken heart. Henry held Becket personally and directly responsible. This turned the dispute personal
5 Henry
5.1 Getting Roger of York to crown YH was a deliberate insult to Becket to get him to return to England
5.2 Henry attacks Becket in 1164, trying him for two offences - angered by his ex-friend's disobedience
5.2.1 Escalated the dispute through this political move to discredit Thomas
5.2.2 One was related to misappropriation of funds while chancellor
5.3 Henry had inherited the famous Angevin temper. It was this that led to the murder of Becket
5.4 Henry refused to give the Kiss of Peace at Montmartre in 1169.
5.4.1 However, at Freteval in 1170 he was willing to reach a compromise
6 Conclusion: The heart of the dispute was clearly about deep seated principles. Henry was concerned to champion Royal rights with the same vigour Becket wished to defend the Church. However, it was the personality of these two stubborn men which caused the dispute to escalate; neither were willing to loose face or reach a compromise over their principles
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