Unification of Italy

cameronshaw1997
Mind Map by cameronshaw1997, updated more than 1 year ago
cameronshaw1997
Created by cameronshaw1997 almost 6 years ago
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Mind Map on Unification of Italy, created by cameronshaw1997 on 04/11/2014.

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Unification of Italy
1 Vienna Settlement
1.1 French rule abolished after defeat at Waterloo in 1815.
1.2 All states to be governed by state monarchies
1.2.1 2 Sicilies bourbon control
1.2.2 Papal States ruled from vatican
1.2.3 Piedmont-sardinia from house of savoy
1.2.4 Austrian control in Lombardy
1.3 Austria had a huge power and influence in Italy
2 1820-1 revolutions
2.1 Aims & Causes
2.1.1 Naples
2.1.1.1 King Ferdinance had increased Church power to censor books, newspapers and magazines. Angered MC, Lawyers and teachers. Ferdinand was short on money so cut back on public spending so halted works on the road and harbour improvements. Less education was being offered, increasing th epoverty levels. Corruption in the government was also a negative.
2.1.2 Uprising in Spain- Pepe got the constitution he desired after violence
2.1.3 Didn't like monarchial control
2.1.4 Sicily
2.1.4.1 Sicily was forced to be joined with Naples and Ferdinand and Siciilians felt he was neglected their island. peasants were getting more and more into debt, riots took place in palermo. demands for constitution, gov offices burned down, prisoners released and neapolitan goernor was sent home by boat.
2.2 What Happened
2.2.1 Naples
2.2.1.1 News of spanish carbonari and liberal revolution, it spurred Naples into action. In July 1921, ferdinand promised to meet and grant the constitutuion to the people of Naples like the on in Spain(1812) which would give vote to all males and reduce kings power. Metternich was angered with what was happening and at the meeting of Laibach 1921, Ferdinand said he had granted it out of fear so metternich offered help, came into Italy March 1821, which restored control to Ferdinand
2.2.2 Sicily
2.2.2.1 Wit Metternichs intervention in Naples it put the action in Sicily down, order was restored. people left the trade guilds who made up the revolutions numbers
2.3 Success
2.3.1 New Constitution
2.3.2 Governor sent back to Naples
2.3.3 Victor Emmanuel I abdicated
2.4 Failures
2.4.1 Austria army took control
2.4.2 Austria-controlled Naples resumed control
2.4.3 Charles Felix and Austria took control
2.4.4 LOOK AT 1831-2
3 1831-2 revolutions
3.1 Modena
3.1.1 In modena, the reolt was led by Enrico Misley, student son of a Uni Proffesor. He told Duke Francis of his plans to have a fully united Italy and trusted him, this was betrayed and he was arrested in feb 1831, 2 days before the uprisings were to begin. the arrest allowed Duke Francis to believe danger was gone so he went to Vienna to negotiate Austrian help should it be needed. when away, revolutionaries took over modena city, and set up provisional government.
3.2 Cause
3.2.1 In 1830, a revolution in Paris led Charles X to abdicate in july 1830, Louis-Philippe was a more liberal figure. this gave hope to Italian Liberals and started to fight. disturbances in Modena, Parma and Papal stars, all places, they were trying to persuade local ruler to grant a constitution
3.3 Parma
3.3.1 Modena activities inspires students in Parma to prganise riots and demand a constitution from their ruler Duchess Marie-Louise. Fled in terror and a provisinal gov was established. the two cities joined together too revolution but ran out of time. Austria defeated the Modena revolutionaries, and then they entered parma where Marie-Louise returned to her position.
3.4 Papal States
3.4.1 Similar Uprisings happened here organised by professional classes who resented oppressive rule of church. papal gov put up little resistance and formed provisional gov called The Government of the Italian People. Austria proved decisive and intervened.Metternich defeated the rebels. some more uprisings in 1831 qnd 1832 but Austria forecfully put them down.
3.5 Reason for failure. 1820's and 1830's
3.5.1 Strength of Austria
3.5.2 Revolutions were local and seperate
3.5.3 Little popular support- these were all done by MC no WC support.
3.5.3.1 No support off peasants
3.5.4 Ill equipped revolutionaries.
3.5.5 No french aid. or any outside aid.
4 1848-9 Revolutuions
4.1 Origins
4.1.1 Pope made reforms in 48 and early 49 which meant that in Piedmont and Tuscany censorship was abolished. the goernments were going to have a customs union with the Papa; States( remove the tax on goods they trade with each other.) Metternich worried and tightened the garrision to stop these agreements. made new treaties with Modena and Parma lots of discontent. liberals wanted constituions, gov reforms, political freedom, nationanlists wanted independence from austria and some unity. 90% was agricultureal. little industry in north. harvests failed 1846 and 1847. shortages of wheat and maize high prices not increased wages. poor became poorer.
4.2 Sicily Succes
4.2.1 Ferdinand II promised reforms to make better life for sicilians, these didnt last. jan 1848 notices went out to show they were going to reform. on the day streets were full of revolutionaries.Lots of armed fighting but 2 days later revolutionaries had taken over the city. by april they had most of the island. provisional gov was set up. a parliament was elected and it was declared that sicily was seperated from naples. King of naples wasnt king of Sicily. never wanted national unity, just seperation from eachother.
4.3 Failure in Naples and Sicily
4.3.1 The revolution spread to Naples in which the King accepted to grant the constitution which would limit him power and be a two-chamber parliament. he would free the press from sensorship. however by september 1848 naples sent troops over to sicily to bombard the people, and in spring of 1849, they were forced to join again with Naples. King went back on earlier promises
4.4 Success in Central and Northern Italy
4.4.1 Grand Duke of Tuscany and King of Piedmont promised to grant constitution. this was followed by Pope in Papal States. trouble in milan with the tobacco boycotts( ruin austrian economy) serious revolts "the Five days" Radetsky who was Austrian control of forces in Italy withdrew because of the unrest in Vienna and Metternich had resigned. The milanese soldiers asked charles albert of piedmont to help them fight against the austrians and he agreed to declare war.
4.5 THe POPE
4.5.1 Charles Albert's army defeated the Austrians at end of 1848. but in papal states wasnt going well.pope's army commander had disobeyed orders and set off with his troops to join Charles Albert's army. made difficulties for pope because he remained neutral and didnt want to be seen at war. Pius ix made it clear he wasnt part of war and didnt want to be head of a federation of states turned his back on liberalism. meant there was a lot less support to national unity.
4.6 Roman Republic and Revolutions 1848-9
4.6.1 Pope fled after assisstant murdered. goernment he left behind announced serious reform changes, abolish tax on corn. mazzini arrived in rome in march and was elected head a governing group. 100 days he held power for. he abolished death penalty, new newspapers 12. catholicism official religion of new republic. he also urged that Rome, Piedmont,Florence and Venice shoild work together to end Austrian rule in Italy. pope appealed to france, spain and naples to help free Rome. 20000 troops marched there and destroyed the roman republic.
5 Cavour coming into power
5.1 lots of knowledge in financial and econmic affairs.
5.2 Appointed PM of Piedmont in 1852
5.3 New nothing on foreign affairs so immediately went to the Crimean War 1854
5.4 peace of paris 1856, Plombieres 1858
5.4.1 At Plombieres he arranged a deal with France in which the two would join together if they could come up with an excuse to entice austria into war or vice versa.
5.5 Resignation
5.5.1 Cavour resigned in July 1859 after the war. he felt let down that Austria still controlled Venetia. Appaled with supposed arrangement in Tuscany, Modena and Parma. Furious he hadnt been consulted with the ending of the war.
5.6 Return to Power
5.6.1 He returned in January 1860, but whilst he was gone a carefully rigged vote in Tuscany voted for annexing with Piedmont same with Modena, Parma, Romagna and Papal States. they werent put into place automatically because of the opposition to Napoleon.
5.6.1.1 When he came back, in Mid march 1860 the population of Tuscany voted for union with Piedmont, and Emilia (the new state of Modena, Parma and Romagna) also signed to annex with Piedmont after in Tuscany 386445 for vs 14925k against (around) and in Emilia around 427512 and 756
5.6.2 Had to resotre good relationship with Napoelon, arranged to give France Nice and Savoy. Savoy 130583 for , 235 against. In nice 24448 got, 160 against french speaking savoy result was expected, but result in Italian speaking Nice was suspicious Garibaldi questioned this.
6 War of 1859
6.1 After plombieres, Cavour knew he couldnt start a war for no reason, but he moved he mobilised his army. In april 1859 Austria demanded that he demoibilise his army, this was the excuse as they werent going to do this. Austria declared war on 29 April 1859
6.1.1 Battle of Magenta 4 June 1859
6.1.1.1 Austrians defated by french troops
6.1.2 Battle of Solferino 24 June 1859
6.1.2.1 Austrians defeated by French-Piedmontese army
6.1.3 Armistice at Villafrance 11 July 1859
6.1.3.1 Piedmont would recieve Lombardy but it was ceded to France first. Tuscany, Modena and Parman leaders who fled were restored. Austria kept Venetia
6.2 Why did Napoleon do the truce after 7 weeks of fighting?
6.2.1 DIdnt have stomach for war.
6.2.2 Little hope that what was left of their own forces could defeat Austria. reinforcements would be needed which would take time etc.
6.2.3 Danger that his absence meant Prussia would take advantage and go into France.
7 Garibaldi's work
7.1 Born in Piedmont but exiled to Argentina and south america, he learned to fight like a guerila and took part in many wars in south america. He came back to Italy because he wanted Naples, Sicily and Rome to be involved in a united Ital,y
7.2 Garibaldi was a rough, non-educated leader who believed he needed to take things into his own hands to get a unified Italy. His ideas were simple and straightforward and he was ready to take the steps required to get a unified Italy. In 1860, revolts had started in Sicily against the King of Naples with whom they wanted to be free from. By early May 1860, Garibaldi had gathered 1200 volunteers together to try and free Sicily from Napoleonic rule. Once he reached Marsala in Sicily on the 11th of May, they advanced into Palermo where they gathered support from locals on the way and defeated an army sent from the King of Naples to stop them. They then found 20,000 enemy troops waiting for them at Palermo which they managed to quickly dispose of which led to a retreat of the Garrison back to Naples. Garibaldi’s style and personality had single-handedly won them the victory. He then took temporary charge of governing Sicily and won over the people by abolishing the tax on corn being milled
7.2.1 . He wanted to annex Sicily with Piedmont, however he though Cavour would prevent him with carrying on with his quest to march into Naples. Garibaldi avoided Cavour’s attempt to stop him by being too quick to beat Cavour’s ships to Naples. Once he arrived, he and his troops marched to the centre of Naples, and they fought their way to the centre of Naples, the King fled and he accepted the surrender by Naples and ruled as a dictator of the Kingdom of Naples for two months.
7.3 Then, he marched into Rome but he was met by Victor Emmanuel on the 26th october 1860 in which garibalidi handed his territory over to the King to become a part of the Kingdom Of Italy. Garibalidi was offered a big pension, castle and Major General title, he refused all after the kings treatment of the red shirts ( garibaldini)
7.4 2 attempts to take rome
7.4.1 1862The Battle of Aspromonte, also known as for the mountain near Reggio Calabria in southern Italy where it took place on 29 August 1862, was an inconclusive episode of the Italian unification process. In the battle, the Royal Italian Army defeated Giuseppe Garibaldi's army of volunteers that was marching from Sicily towards Rome with the intent of liberating the city and annexing it to the Kingdom of Italy. In the encounter, a few kilometers from Gambarie, Garibaldi was wounded and taken prisoner.
7.4.2 The Battle of Mentana was fought on November 3, 1867 near the village of Mentana between French-Papal troops and the Italian volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi, who were attempting to capture Rome, then the main centre of the peninsula still outside of the newly unified Kingdom of Italy. The battle ended in a victory by the French-Papal troops.
8 Kingdom of Italy 1861-70
8.1 In 1866 Venetia was important. Italy signed an alliance with Prussia in April, as Prussia were in a battle with Austria for the control of Germany. Italy agreed that if Austria and Prussia went to war Italy would followe Prussia and declare war. Napoleon III also sined a secret treaty with Bismarck in June. France would remain neutral in the war and if Austria ewre defeated, Italy would recieve Venetia. This would then be given to Italy as a reward for being a second front. Napoleon also signed a secret treaty with Austria that if the stayed neutral, and Austria won, then Venetia would be given to the french to give to italy. This was great diplomatic skill. Peace of Prague in 1866,Austria gave Venetia to france after losing, and then passed to Italy.
8.2 THe last problem was how to get the French out of Rome. in 1870 Franco-Prussian war broke out meaning Napoleon had to remove the french garrison from Rome meaning that the Italians could take Rome. On 8 september victor Emmanuel wrote to the Pope asking him to give up temporal power which was only there from 1849 because of the french garrison and allow rome to be the capital of a united Italy. The popoe rejected this 3 days later. 6000 troops were sent in. 20 september 1870 VE army ebtered rome. Roman citizens voted 133681 to 1507 for unification. Italy was now united
9 Individuals
9.1 Mazzini
9.1.1 nationalist and patriot. considered one of the "patron saints" of the Italian Risorgimento.His association, Giovine Italia (Young Italy), founded in the 1830s, attracted adherents throughout the peninsula and among Italian political exiles everywhere. With the exception of Giuseppe Garibaldi, no other Italian Risorgimento leader enjoyed greater international renown than Mazzini in his time.Mazzini's primary goals were the end of Austrian hegemony in Italy and of the temporal power of the pope
9.1.1.1 In 1848 Mazzini's dreams seemed to be realized, when news of the successful revolutions throughout Europe reached him in his English exile. As the revolutions progressed like brush-fires up the Italian peninsula, Mazzini arrived in Milan.On April 30, 1848, Carlo Cattaneo, Giuseppe Ferrari, and other republican leaders of the Milanese revolt proposed to overturn their pro-Piedmontese provisional government and request French assistance against Austria. Mazzini opposed them, urging support for the efforts of the Italian monarch and army, rather than appealing to foreign troops. This drew angry criticisms from the republican leaders who accused Mazzini of betraying his republican principles. The quarrel proved futile. Marshall Radetzky was already regrouping his forces against the Piedmontese army which he would eventually defeat at Custozza on July 25, 1848, to reestablish Austrian control over Lombardy.
9.1.1.1.1 Pope fled after assistant murdered. government he left behind announced serious reform changes, abolish tax on corn. Mazzini arrived in Rome in march and was elected head a governing group. 100 days he held power for. he abolished death penalty, new newspapers 12. catholicism official religion of new republic. he also urged that Rome, Piedmont,Florence and Venice should work together to end Austrian rule in Italy. pope appealed to France, Spain and Naples to help free Rome. 20000 troops marched there and destroyed the roman republic.
9.2 Victor Emmanuel
9.2.1 Victor Emanuel II was king of Sardinia from 1849 until, on 17 March 1861, he assumed the title King of Italy to become the first king of a united Italy the King halted Garibaldi when he appeared ready to attack Rome, still under the Papal States, as it was under French protection. In 1860, through local plebiscites, Tuscany, Modena, Parma and Romagna decided to side with Sardinia-Piedmont. In 1866 Victor Emanuel allied himself with Prussia in the Third Italian War of Independence. Although not victorious in the Italian theater, he managed anyway to receive Veneto after the Austrian defeat in Germany. In 1870, after two failed attempts by Garibaldi, he also took advantage of the Prussian victory over France in the Franco-Prussian War to capture Rome after the French withdrew. He entered Rome on 20 September 1870 and set up the new capital there on 2 July 1871
9.3 Charles Albert Statuto
9.3.1 Unrest in Turin caused Charles Albert to agree to reforms and to grant a constitution which became known as the statuto. took power away from monarchy and put it into hands of government officials. issued on 8 February 1848. Full Statuto was published in March 1848 and it inclued some more clauses to the original 14.
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