The Geography of Technology

gracering
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Geography Mind Map on The Geography of Technology, created by gracering on 05/07/2013.

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gracering
Created by gracering over 6 years ago
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The Geography of Technology
1 Nature of technology
1.1 Technology increases the ability of people to satisfy their needs
1.1.1 New tools, machines and systems
1.1.2 New ways of moving and communicating
1.1.3 New ways of modifying the environment
1.1.4 New ways of prolonging or shortening life
1.2 Solving problems
1.2.1 Many believe that for every problem there is a technological fix
1.2.1.1 Global warming - geo-engineering
1.2.1.2 HIV - Pharmaceutical research
1.2.1.3 OIl Shortage - Hydrogen economy
1.2.2 Can be changed by an attitudinal fix - chamging human behaviour
1.2.2.1 Global Warming - Education & Tax incentives
1.2.2.2 HIV - Public health education
1.2.2.3 Oil Shortage - Energy efficieny, public transport
1.3 Development of music playback technology
1.3.1 New technologies have a life cycle
1.3.2 Decline begins when better technologies become mainstream
1.3.3 LIfe cycles become shorter
1.3.4 Speed of growth increased
1.4 Controlling nature
1.4.1 People use technology to control nature, so their lives are less determined by environmental factors
1.5 Attitudes to technology
1.5.1 Technies - people who positively seek out and embrace developments
1.5.2 Luddites - people who are opposed to technological change
1.5.3 Amish Christians
1.5.3.1 Reject modern technology
1.5.3.2 Objection is a religious one
1.5.3.3 Telephones are frowned upon, seen as providing a connection
1.5.4 UK - CCTV
1.5.4.1 10 million cameras
1.5.4.2 Raised concerns over personal privacy
1.5.4.3 3% of street crime solved by CCTV - low number down to poor image quality
2 Geographical distribution
2.1 Digital Technology
2.1.1 The DAI illustrates
2.1.1.1 Telephone landlines
2.1.1.2 Mobile phone subscribers
2.1.1.3 Cost of access
2.1.1.4 Adult literacy
2.1.1.5 School enrolment
2.1.1.6 Internet use
2.1.2 Countries at a higher level of development tend to have a greater access to technology
2.1.3 Countries with a DAI of over 75 are hyperconnected
2.1.3.1 Have infrastructure and competition has lowered costs
2.1.4 In LDCs gaining access to technology requires other technologies to be put into place
2.2 Fossil Fuels
2.2.1 Exploiting fossil fuels gives us access to cheap fuel on which technology depends
2.2.2 In 2004, fossil fuels supplied 86% of energy use
2.2.3 Most of LDCs is dependent on capturing energy directly. This therefore restricts development
2.2.4 Petrochemical industry also produces plastics
2.2.4.1 Plastics are cheap and versatile.
2.2.4.2 Cars depend on oil and plastic, therefore if oil becomes scarce we will require new technologies
3 Access to technology
3.1 Technology can reduce risk and increase expectations
3.1.1 In MDCs we expect to live to our 70's/80's
3.1.2 In LDCs the risk of dying in your 40's/50's is high
3.1.3 Haiti is a high risk society which lacks to manage risks from natural hazards, disease and malnutrition. This therefore reduces life expectancy,
3.1.4 Haiti suffers from environmental determinism
3.1.4.1 If a hurricane struck, we would expect them to die
3.1.4.2 In MDCs we would assume technology would come to our aid
4 Inequality of access
4.1 Wealth is not the only explanation for the geographical pattern of technology
4.1.1 HIV
4.1.1.1 Drugs are patented and protected by companies that develop them. Prevents cheap copies being produced and therefore LDCs can't afford them.
4.1.2 Nuclear
4.1.2.1 Can be used to create military weapons. Western powers have prevented countries like Iraq and North Korea from gaining access.
4.1.3 Communications
4.1.3.1 North Korea - Citizens have been banned from having mobiles, access to the internet is restricted and filtered, no access to the outside world
4.1.4 Contraception
4.1.4.1 Catholicism bans the use of contraception
4.1.5 GM
4.1.5.1 GM crops not grown in UK due to opposition due to concern of ethics and their impacts on biodiversity
4.2 Raise difficult moral issues
4.2.1 Some GM crops could increase food security in MDCs
4.2.2 ARVs can prolong life of people
4.2.3 Do individuals have rights to life saving technologies or do TNCs have a right to protect their investment and profits

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