1.1 Biodiversity

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1.1 Biodiversity
1 Carbohydrates
1.1 Made up of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen
1.1.1 A single unit is call a monomer!
1.2 Monosaccharide
1.2.1 General Formula (CH2O)n
1.2.2 C6H12O6 - Glucose Alpha Glucose Beta Glucose
1.3 Disaccharide
1.3.1 Glucose + Glucose --> Maltose
1.3.2 Glucose + Fructose --> Sucrose
1.3.3 Glucose + Galactose --> Lactose
1.3.4 Two monosaccharides joined by the formation of a glycosydic bond A reverse reaction Hydrolysis reaction Addition of water Condensation reaction Elimination of a water molecule
1.4 Polysaccharide
1.4.1 A large number if monosaccharides joined together by glycosidic bonds
1.4.2 Starch Storage Polysaccharide Made up of alpha Glucose It is Compact - Insoluble - doesn't draw water towards it by osmosis Made up of two polymers Amylose Linear (unbranched) and coils into a helix Amylopectin Branched and fits inside Amylose readily hydrolysed in Alpha Glucose
1.4.3 Glycogen main storage product in animals sometimes called animal starch Similar to Amylopectin readily hydrolysed to Alpha Glucose Alpha glucose is soluble can be transported to where energy is needed
1.4.4 Cellulose Structural Polysaccharide in Plant Cell Walls many long parallel chains of Beta Glucose Cross-linked together by hydrogen bonds Each Beta glucose rotated 180 degrees Allows hydrogen bonds between hydroxyl groups Lots of hydrogen bonds make it strong and ridged
1.4.5 Chitin Found in Insects Similar to cellulose bu has amino acids to form a MUCOPOLYSACCHARICE It is - Strong -Waterproof - Light weight Exoskeletons
2 Proteins
2.1 Differ from carbohydrates and lipids as they also always contains nitrogen
2.1.1 any also contain sulphur and sometimes phosphorous
2.2 made up of sub-units called amino acids
2.2.1 about 20 different amino acids used to make up proteins Thousands of different proteins Depends on the sequence of amino acids
2.3 All have the same basic structure
2.3.1 An amino group, NH2
2.3.2 A carboxyl group, -COOH
2.3.3 An R group This is what differs from one amino acid to another
2.4 Peptide Bond
2.4.1 Amino group of one amino acid reacts with the carboxyl group of another Elimination of water
2.4.2 Results in a dipeptide
2.4.3 A number of amino acids joined together is a polypeptide
2.5 Protein Structure
2.5.1 1. Primary Peptide bonds
2.5.2 2. Secondary Peptide and Hydrogen Bonding Forms Alpha Helix Or Forms a pleated sheet
2.5.3 3. Tertiary Peptide, Hydrogen, Disulphide and ionic bonding Gives it a 3D shape
2.5.4 4. Quaternary Peptide, Hydrogen, Disulphide and ionic bonding Combination of two or more polypeptide chains in tertiary structure
2.6 Inorganic Ions
2.6.1 micronutrients needed in minute amounts e.g. copper, Zinc
2.6.2 Macronutrients needed in small amounts Magnesium - Chlorophyll Iron - Haemoglobin Phosphate - Plasma membranes, Nucleic acids, ATP Calcium - Bones and teeth
2.7 Classification of Proteins
2.7.1 Fibrous polypeptides in parallel chains or sheets lots of cross links to form long fibres Insoluble in water, Strong and tough E.g. Collagen in Tendons
2.7.2 Globular play important roles in living organisms E.g. enzymes, antibodies, plasma proteins and hormones Compact and folded as spherical molecules Soluble in water
3 Lipids
3.1 Fats
3.1.1 They are - non-polar - insoluble in water
3.1.2 Tryglycerides are formed by a condensation reaction forming an ester bond one molecule of glycerol and three fatty acids the fatty acids can vary Ester bond formed between the glycerol and the fatty acid removal of three water molecule ester bond = an oxygen bond
3.1.3 two main kinds of fatty acids Saturated fatty acids single c - c bonds unsaturated fatty acids one or more C=C double bonds Therefore fewer hydrogen atoms
3.2 Chemical Properties
3.2.1 Insoluble in Water
3.2.2 dissolves in organic solvents Acetone Alochols
3.2.3 Fats solid at room temperature
3.2.4 Oils are liquid at room temperature
3.3 Functions
3.3.1 Energy Storage One gram of fat when oxidised yields approx. twice as much as the same amount of carbohydrates
3.3.2 Produces Metabolic Water Triglycerides produce a lot Important in desert animals such as camels
3.3.3 Protection of delicate internal organs
3.3.4 Insulation poor conductors of heat and when under the skin they help retain body heat
3.3.5 Waterproofing Insoluble in water Important in land organisms Makes up the waxy cuticle Insects exoskeletons Leaves to reduce Transpiration
3.4 Phosopholipids
3.4.1 Important in the formation and functioning of membranes in cells
3.4.2 The lipid part is non-polar Insoluble in water Hydrophobic
3.4.3 The phosphate group is polar Dissolves in water Hydrophilic
3.4.4 They allow lipid-soluble substances to enter and leave a cell Prevent water-soluble substances entering and leaving the cell
4 Water
4.1 Cohesion
4.1.1 water molecules attract to each other due to being polar
4.1.2 Forms Hydrogen Bonds
4.2 Surface Tension
4.2.1 Water has high Surface Tension Allows insects to stand on the water with out falling in it
4.3 Water as a Solvent
4.3.1 Allows Chemical reactions to take place in solution
4.3.2 Acts as a transport medium
4.4 Specific Heat
4.4.1 HIgh Specific Heat Due to hydrogen bonds between molecules
4.4.2 Prevents flucuations in the temperaure of the water important in keeping aquatic habitats a stable temperature
4.4.3 Allows enzymes within cells to work effectively
4.5 Latent Heat
4.5.1 High Latent Heat
4.5.2 Lots of energy needed to increase the temperature by 1 degree
4.6 Density
4.6.1 Maximum density at 4 degrees
4.6.2 ice is less dense than water floats on top of water acts as an insulator allows organisms to survive below
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