Chemistry Unit 1 A

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Chemistry Unit 1 A
1 Hydrocarbons and crude oil
1.1 Keywords: Crude oil, fossil fuel, hydrocarbon, non-renewable, mixture
1.2 Examples of fossil fuels are coal, crude oil and natural gas.
1.3 Crude oil is made by little dead plants and animals that lived in the sea millions of years ago, when they died they didn't decay, compact at the bottom of the sea so we get crude oil.
1.4 All fossil fuels are non-renewable. This means we can't make any fossil fuels and fossil fuels will eventually run out.
1.5 Hydrocarbons are made out of hydrogen and carbon only.
1.6 Methane, Ethane, Butane and Propane are all example of hydrocarbons
1.7 Ethanol contains an oxygen atom therefore it is not a hydrocarbon
1.8 What is the relation between hydrocarbons and crude oil? Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds
2 Fractional distillation
2.1 The shorter the chain the lower boiling point it needs to separate the mixture as they are weaker molecules and require less energy
2.2 The longer the chains the higher the boiling point it needs to separate the mixture due to high molecule forces which needs a high level energy
2.3 When crude oil is heated it is separated into six parts which we call fractions
2.4 Keywords: crude oil, fraction, mixture, separate, fractional distillation, boiling point, intermolecular forces
3 Cracking
3.1 Cracking is used to change longer less useful alkanes into smaller more useful alkanes and alkenes
3.2 Smaller alkanes can be used in petrol
3.3 Smaller alkenes can be used in polymerisation to make plastic
3.4 We crack to try and match supply with demand
3.5 Keywords: cracking, alkane, alkene, thermal decomposition, catalyst, supply, demand.