Restoration Italy (1815-1831)

Myrii
Mind Map by Myrii, updated more than 1 year ago
Myrii
Created by Myrii almost 7 years ago
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Description

A Levels History (AS) (Italian Unification) Mind Map on Restoration Italy (1815-1831), created by Myrii on 04/24/2014.

Resource summary

Restoration Italy (1815-1831)
  1. Congress and Treaty of Vienna (1815)
    1. Treaty reflected Prince Metternich's conservative wishes for Italy
      1. Restored pre-1796 state of peninsula
        1. Wanted to suppress liberal government
        2. Piedmont
          1. House of Savoy = rightful rulers
            1. Victor Emmanuel I returns and restores absolute rule
              1. Code Napoleon repealed
                1. Church restored
                  1. Gained port and state of Genoa
                  2. Lombardy and Venice
                    1. Lombardy under Austrian control
                      1. Venice annexed to Austria
                      2. The Papal States
                        1. Pope Pius VII restored
                          1. Code Napoleon repealed in most areas
                            1. Austrian forces stationed in these states
                            2. The Central Duchies
                              1. Under Austrian influence
                                1. Ferdinand III became ruler of Tuscany
                                  1. Improved education etc.
                                    1. Allowed freedom of expression
                                    2. Marie-Louise of Bourbon-Parma replaced Code Napoleon with something similar
                                      1. Duke Francis IV in Modena was more repressive
                                      2. Naples
                                        1. Ferdinand I restored to throne
                                          1. Church power/authority restored
                                            1. Many liberal projects abandoned
                                              1. British-inspired constitution in Sicily destroyed (1816)
                                            2. Secret Societies
                                              1. The Carbonari
                                                1. Largest secret society
                                                  1. Political change
                                                    1. Revolution against restored monarchs
                                                    2. The Adelfi/The Society of the Sublime Perfect Masters
                                                      1. Destruction of Austrian rule -> democratic republic
                                                        1. Anti-French
                                                        2. Members
                                                          1. Middle-class
                                                            1. Some had "lost out" due to the restoration
                                                              1. Some wanted restoration of political rights/constitutions
                                                                1. Some wanted radical action
                                                              2. Revolt in Naples (1820)
                                                                1. Caused by Ferdinand III promising a constitution in Spain following an uprising
                                                                  1. July 1820: Uprising in Naples, success relied on actions of General Pepe
                                                                    1. Carbonari > peasants involved
                                                                      1. Ferdinand agreed to new constitution based on 1812 Spanish model (6th July)
                                                                      2. Revolution in Sicily (1821)
                                                                        1. Led by workers of Palermo after news of success in Naples
                                                                          1. Confined to Palermo
                                                                            1. Revolutions worried Metternich, Congress at Laibach caused Ferdinand to renounce constitution and in March 1821 Austrian forces crush revolutionary government in Naples
                                                                            2. Revolt in Piedmont (1821)
                                                                              1. Group of Piedmontese army officers seized fortress of Alessandria and declared provisional government (March 1821)
                                                                                1. Revolution spread to Turin, where the army mutinied
                                                                                  1. Victor Emmanuel I abdicated, replaced by Charles Felix, regent: Charles Albert
                                                                                  2. Charles Albert issues constitution, Charles Felix returns and rejects constitution and asks Metternich for military support
                                                                                    1. Revolutionaries' army defeated at Novara by Piedmontese-Austrian troops (April 1821)
                                                                                    2. Uprising in Modena (1831)
                                                                                      1. Despite the conspirator Ciro Menotti's arrest, revolution went ahead in Bologna and spread to Modena
                                                                                        1. Francesco IV requests support from Metternich after fleeing to Vienna
                                                                                          1. Francesco returns to the Central Duchies with an Austrian army and the revolution was crushed, with many revolutionaries being executed. (March 1831)
                                                                                          2. Revolution in the Papal States (1831)
                                                                                            1. Moderate revolution, middle and artisan classes involved
                                                                                              1. Cino Menotti urged an uprising to challenge the clerical state and re-establish a secular state and liberal reforms
                                                                                                1. Revolutionary army captures Ancona and Perugia in February 1831, and provisional government is set up in March. Constitution issued.
                                                                                                  1. March 1831: Army from Austria intervenes and took Bologna. Revolutionary army surrenders to papal forces.
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