The problem of evil

lauren_walji
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

International Baccalaureate Philosophy (God and the world) Mind Map on The problem of evil, created by lauren_walji on 05/09/2013.

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lauren_walji
Created by lauren_walji over 6 years ago
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The problem of evil
1 Judeo-christian tradition, God is Omnibenevolent, omnipotent and omniscient. Existence of evil a problem: inconsistent triad
2 Moral evil: Evil that arises out of human action e.g. holocaust
3 Natural evil: Evil over which people have little or no control over, fundamental feature in natural world
4 Augustine: Soul deciding
4.1 God gave mankind free will because good, better than being automatons humans can choose to love god. Must be able to turn away from god and not fulfil human nature if really free
4.1.1 In bible pride leads us to reject opportunity to flourish, succumb then to lower desires e.g. gluttony and greed. God saw and offered redemption in jesus. Accept= enlightenment and salvation, if not go to hell
4.1.1.1 So existence of evil is man's fault, according to our choices - fate of our souls decided
4.2 Criticism
4.2.1 Logically possible for god to create world in which we are free but always choose god- benevolent creator should have chosen it because best option
4.2.1.1 Free will can be defined as being able to act without constraint or coercion, logically possible for real choice to exist but we always choose to do good
4.2.1.1.1 E.g. keep offering people chocolates or toffees, nobody interferes(no coercion or constraint) and it is logically possible to choose chocolates every time - alternative exists but just prefer chocolates.
4.2.1.1.2 So best possible result of all worlds - god would wish - evil choices not consistent with gods qualities and human freedom
4.2.2 Counter argument:
4.2.2.1 Not really free choice, if god create free creatures but then determines them to do what is right - not really free (plantinga)
4.2.2.1.1 Different conceptions of freedom, first - freedom is being able to act according to desires and god has engineered our desires to always choose good
4.2.2.1.1.1 Freedom is being able to select your desires - entails you must be able to choose evil. More benevolent god would pick freedom over good
4.2.2.2 If not corruptible not free(human nature)
4.2.2.3 Natural evil result of 'the fall' - adam and eve disobeyed god - metaphysical change: Altered nature, humans and their relationship= enmity between both e.g. giving birth is painful, we are still being punished because sin is seminally present in us
4.2.3 Natural evil?
5 What is Evil?
5.1 Augustine:Evil is privation - lack of good: God did not create it. Evil occurs when we fail to live up to nature, God gave us possibility of free will - so is absolved from responsibility
5.1.1 E.g. we are degenerate when we lack control or are revengeful when we fail to forgive
5.1.2 1)Argument becomes trivial play on words. E.g. war is a lack of peace! Also God may not have created evil but allows it to exist.
5.1.3 2)Natural evil seems to be part of the universe that is not accounted for by turning away. Augustine said that this was because problem with angels
5.1.4 3)Could question existence of intrinsic human nature, sartre doesnt think there is a human nature. Also ideal human nature subjective in different cultures
5.2 Evil - suffering: Pain, misery etc in world. Suffering and death exist
5.3 Evil as a necessary part of a balanced universe: From our limited perspective suffering may appear awful but God has painted on a broader canvas and can see whole picture whereas we can't
5.3.1 How can the holocaust be part of the bigger picture? How can god let it happen?
6 Irenean theodicy: soul making
6.1 Humans created imperfect and raw - which are matured and developed through experience of evil. eventually arrive at proper relationship with god.
6.1.1 E.g. children who are brought up by wise parents who let child take risks and face problems rather than lock them away
6.1.2 Criticisms
6.1.2.1 1)why didn't god just make us good in first place?
6.1.2.1.1 Hick replies that someone who has become good through confronting evil is 'good in a richer and more valuable sense' than if you are just created good
6.1.2.2 2)All evil is justified if ALL evil leads to spiritual growth
7 Epistemic distance
7.1 Part of learning curve for mankind is that god maintains epistemic distance from world (means he does not give us clear knowledge of his existence and his plan, because then our choices will be genuinely thought trhough -do not rely on teacher to sort out problems
7.2 Must learn from making mistakes - requires possibility of real suffering; our destiny realised through real understanding of what is right - so that we are ignorant of grand design
7.3 Could say why not just give with complete necessary memories, improved habits and wisdom just before salvation?
7.3.1 If the end point is guaranteed what is the point of the pilgrimage?
7.4 Why cant god just limit suffering scale? But there are disasters repeated, innocents die
8 Best possible world
8.1 Leibniz said god would only have created best world- world we live in must be the best
8.1.1 swinburne has four worlds 1) without death, few imperfections 2) Immortal, infinite problems and infinite number of people 3) no death, but birth 4) life and death - possibility of improvements and damage
8.1.1.1 Says 4 is best - experience most and cause least damage
8.2 Greatest prime number

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