The key features of Détente, 1970-1975

jacksearle
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A-Levels Cold War (Détente) Mind Map on The key features of Détente, 1970-1975, created by jacksearle on 04/29/2014.

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jacksearle
Created by jacksearle over 5 years ago
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The key features of Détente, 1970-1975
1 The Moscow Summit
1.1 May 1972 - Nixon and Brezhnev set out the basis of the new relationship between their countries
1.1.1 SALT I, The culmination of Strategic Arms Limitations Talks, was at the heart of the meeting
2 SALT I 1972
2.1 Negotiations between US and USSR on topic of arms limitations - started November 1969
2.1.1 Talks held in private - to allow superpowers to share sensitive info
2.1.1.1 May 1972 - Nixon and Brezhnev signed 2 agreements collectively known as SALT I
2.2 The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty
2.2.1 Restricted USA and USSR to 2 anti-ballistic missile shields each
2.2.2 Each anti-ballistic missile shield was restricted to 100 missiles
2.2.3 The further development of anti-ballistic missile technology was restricted - An Oversight Commission was established to enforce this aspect
2.3 The Interim Agreement on Offensive Missiles
2.3.1 The interim agreement limited the number of missile launchers as follows
2.3.1.1 Missile launchers
2.3.1.1.1 USSR 1618
2.3.1.1.2 USA 1054
2.3.1.2 Submarine based launchers
2.3.1.2.1 USSR 740
2.3.1.2.2 USA 656
2.3.2 was due to last 5 years in anticipation of a full agreement to be drawn up in 1977
2.4 Significance
2.4.1 SALT I was significant because it changed the relationship between the powers
2.4.1.1 Treaty signalled that they were willing to work together to limit the production and stockpiling of nuclear arms - rather than engage in an arms race
3 The Basic Principles Agreement
3.1 Moscow summit also agreed on the Basic Principles Agreement
3.1.1 made up of 12 fundamental principles - designed to underpin superpower relations
3.1.1.1 Included an acceptance that the superpowers would co-exist peacefully, recognise eachother as equals, exercise restrain in crisis time, and avoid confrontations
3.1.1.1.1 Meeting also agreed on Joint Commercial Commission which negotiated trade deals between the powers
3.1.1.1.1.1 Basic Principles Agreement was significant because, for the first time, it introduced a series of rules governing aspects of the superpower relationship
3.1.1.1.1.1.1 In this sense - it made the relationship more stable
4 European Ostpolitik
4.1 European nations on both sides of iron curtain were involved in their own form of Détente
4.1.1 Known as Ostpolitik
4.1.1.1 In practice involved European govts working together to address the problems created by a divided Europe
4.1.1.1.1 West Germany particularly committed to Ostpolitik
4.2 1970-1971 East and West German govts negotiated the Berlin Agreement - guaranteed the borders of West Germany
4.2.1 Was significant because - before agreement - Eastern Bloc had refused to formally recognise the existence of West Germany
4.2.1.1 Ostpolitik was important for Détente - it further stabilised superpower relations
5 The Helsinki Accords 1975
5.1 Set out a comprehensive framework governing relations between Eastern and Western Europe
5.1.1 The agreement tackled 3 aspects of European politics - became known as 'baskets'
5.1.1.1 Helsinki Accords were significant because they established a framework for managing a divided Europe
5.2 Basket 1: Security Measures
5.2.1 European states pledged to respect one another's sovereignty
5.2.1.1 In practice, this meant that European states would not interfere in one another's affairs
5.2.1.1.1 European states promised to respect borders, and they accepted the possibility that borders might change through peaceful negotiation
5.3 Basket 2: Economic, cultural, scientific and environmental issues
5.3.1 European states pledged to cooperate on matters of mutual interest and to foster good trading relations across Europe
5.3.1.1 To this end, they agreed to share Western technology with the East
5.4 Basket 3: Human Rights and Travel
5.4.1 European states pledged to respect the human rights of their citizens
5.4.1.1 Also pledged to relax travel restrictions across Europe
6 The Unlooked-for significance of the Helsinki Accords
6.1 Helsinki Accords led to unforeseen problems for East Europe and the USSR
6.1.1 Economic cooperation agreed to in basket 2 highlighted the inferiority of communist economies
6.1.1.1 Goods produced by Western Europe were more sophisticated and higher quality
6.1.1.1.1 In this sense, the baskets led to 'ideological subversion'
6.1.1.1.1.1 They led citizens in the Eastern Bloc, and the USSR, to question the efficiency of the communist economy - undermining the legitimacy of communist rule
6.2 Basket 3 also led to unforeseen problems
6.2.1 Travel restrictions from West to East were relaxed
6.2.1.1 Led to establishment of business relationships across Iron Curtain
6.2.1.1.1 Through these contacts, citizens of Eastern Bloc and USSR learned of Western European culture
6.2.1.1.1.1 Specifically - learnt of freedom of press - freedom of speech and religion and democracy
6.2.1.1.1.1.1 In this way - Eastern Europeans discovered a more attractive alternative to communist rule
6.3 The Helsinki Accords, and the trade and travel that were initiated, clearly played a significant role in undermining the legitimacy of the Communist regimes in Eastern Europe and the USSR

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