Liberalism - Key aspects - Core Values

rebekah_blakely
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A-Levels Government & Politics Mind Map on Liberalism - Key aspects - Core Values, created by rebekah_blakely on 05/03/2014.

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rebekah_blakely
Created by rebekah_blakely over 5 years ago
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Liberalism - Key aspects - Core Values
1 Liberty/ Freedom
1.1 Political or revolutionary Liberty
1.1.1 Not mean freedom from the government for all me
1.1.2 Nation should be free from colonial/oppressive domination from another nation
1.1.2.1 America from Britain
1.1.2.2 France
1.1.3 known as self-determination
1.1.4 core aspect applies now
1.1.4.1 people should independently choose their own government
1.2 Individual liberty
1.2.1 change from political to independent liberty occurred in 19th C
1.2.2 enemies were over-powerful governments
1.2.2.1 too paternalistic - claim to understand what was in the peoples best interests than people themselves
1.2.2.2 Regulated the behaviour of the individuals without just cause, split liberalism into 2
1.2.2.2.1 Utilitarianism
1.2.2.2.1.1 each individual is the best judge of their interest
1.2.2.2.1.1.1 Jeremy Bentham - we know what we want and must avoid
1.2.2.2.1.1.1.1 "the greatest happiness for the greater number of people"
1.2.2.2.1.1.2 Govt should not make those decisions for us
1.2.2.2.2 John Stuart Mill
1.2.2.2.2.1 divided actions into two types
1.2.2.2.2.1.1 self- regarding actions
1.2.2.2.2.1.1.1 only affect you
1.2.2.2.2.1.2 other- regarding actions
1.2.2.2.2.1.2.1 affect others
1.2.2.2.2.1.2.2 may be subject to control by the people of governments
2 Tolerance
2.1 follows Mills principle if Individual liberty
2.2 locke was concerned with religious tolerance
2.2.1 "that every man may enjoy the same rights that are granted to others"
2.3 involves every sphere of life now
2.3.1 toleration of others beliefs, values, thoughts and faiths
2.3.1.1 1st Amendment
2.4 20th C - moved to rights of minorities
2.4.1 Defended rights of Homosexuals, ethnic and religious minorities
2.4.1.1 BNP on question time
2.4.1.2 Opposed all censorship
2.4.1.2.1 any view should be heard as it reinforces ur belief and truth in society
2.4.1.3 assign limits to their tolerance
2.4.1.3.1 Virginia vs Black 2003
2.5 tend to demonstrate tolerance on issues of personal morality
2.5.1 abortion
2.5.1.1 Roe vs Wade 1976
2.5.2 Same-sex marriage
2.5.2.1 Us vs Windsor 2013
3 Equal rights
3.1 disagree amongst themselves
3.1.1 Locke & paine
3.1.2 Bentham & Mill rejected natural rights theory, freedom to pursue own self-interest
3.2 all entitled to equal rights
3.3 all rights given to us by God or nature must be given on an equal basis
3.4 other liberals believe we are created equal and must enjoy equal rights
3.5 However, a belief in equal rights is not a belief in equality in general
3.5.1 what we have is an equal right to achieve our full potential and to see self- fulfilment
3.6 Two implications
3.6.1 Discrimination against groups should be outlawed
3.6.2 Entitled to equality of opportunity
4 Equality of Opportunity
4.1 many members of society through no fault of their own were no blessed with equal opportunity to benefit from a free society
4.2 William Gladstone espoused greater equality of opportunity as one of his goals
4.3 William Beveridge created welfare state with healthcare and social security
4.4 Labour party from 1960s introduced comprehensive education, outlawing of discrimination against women, ethnic minorities and the disability
5 Puralism
5.1 Alexis de Tocqyeville regards this as an essential requirement for democracy
5.2 flourishing collection of groups to which people owned allegiance and could freely participate
5.3 civic society would prevent the state from becoming too powerful
5.4 balance against potential tyranny of rule by the numerical majority
6 Government by consent
6.1 people should have regular opportunities to express their consent
6.2 includes
6.2.1 regular free election
6.2.2 use of referendums
6.2.3 free expression of public opinion
6.3 only legitimate if people have freely given their consent to system of government
7 limited government
7.1 govt should operate within strict boundaries
7.2 Power is dangerous and must be controlled
7.3 libs fear 3 consequences of govt
7.3.1 exercise power that has no authority
7.3.1.1 FPTP - does it give authority
7.3.2 concentrated in the hands of the few
7.3.2.1 cabinet - three wise men
7.3.3 Create 'tyranny of the majority"
7.3.3.1 Issue restraints on minority
7.4 solution by imposing constitutional rules
7.4.1 Checks & Balances
8 Justice
8.1 Two aspects of this value
8.1.1 Legal Justice
8.1.1.1 Equal application of the law to all citizens
8.1.1.1.1 Due Process
8.1.2 Social Justice
8.1.2.1 Advancement of society requires state intervention
8.1.2.2 associated with socialist more then Liberals
8.1.2.3 major debate between Classical & Modern Liberals

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