Types of Liberalism

rebekah_blakely
Mind Map by rebekah_blakely, updated more than 1 year ago
rebekah_blakely
Created by rebekah_blakely almost 6 years ago
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A-Levels Government & Politics Mind Map on Types of Liberalism, created by rebekah_blakely on 05/03/2014.

Resource summary

Types of Liberalism
1 Classical Liberalism
1.1 inspired by JS Mills
1.2 Interpret the classical liberal idea of freedom as partly a matter of principle (Mill) and partly a matter of economic well-being (Bentham)
1.3 Sees them as human beings not consumers like utilitarians
1.4 Liberty of the individual
1.5 Individuals free to pursue their own interests
1.5.1 maximise human potential
1.5.2 for the "permanent interests of a man as a progressive being"
1.6 Toleration of differences
1.6.1 included religious tolerance
1.7 minimal govt
1.7.1 narrow range of essential functions
1.7.1.1 prevent formation of monopolies
1.7.1.2 maintain order, security
1.8 free-market economy
1.9 Representative Democray
2 New Liberalism
2.1 developed 1870s
2.2 TH Green - accepted liberty in the importance of the individual (negative) but made 2 observations
2.2.1 we are not free to pursue our own interests, but have a social obligation
2.2.1.1 the needs and welfare of others
2.2.2 we have freedom of choice and opportunity, the chance to achieve self-realisation
2.3 The belief that free-trade would benefit all sections of society to fulfil their potential was clearly not evident
2.4 To change the condition state intervention was required front the state
2.4.1 Gladstone tried to introduce primary education
2.4.2 elementary education extended to all in1901
2.4.3 Asquith and Lloyd George widened process
2.4.3.1 first pension
2.4.3.2 state-sponsered insurance
2.4.3.3 schemes for unemployed and sickness
2.4.3.4 moving towards welfare state
2.5 saw the state as an enhancement to liberty rather than a threat to it
3 Welfare Liberalism
3.1 needed to respond to the growing popular support for socialist initiatives
3.2 1940s - Beveridge produced a blueprint for a social policy after the war had ended
3.2.1 he tried to create a greater role for the state, without curtailing liberty
3.3 unemployment, lack of education and poverty were curtailments to freedom as much as laws and overbearing governments
3.4 JM Keynes felt able to justify the extensions in the states role on the grounds of economic stability could enhance freedom
3.4.1 Argued the state needed to engage in positive economic management in order to create an economic environment in which individuals would feel confident in their ability to engage in commercial and industrial enterprises
3.5 ideas supported by all parties in 1950s-1960s
3.5.1 'consensus politics'
4 Contemporary Liberalism
4.1 many socialist and conservative parties have adopted liberal policies
4.2 John Rawls - provided a bridge between Liberalism and social democracy
4.2.1 developed theory of justice which combined individual liberty with a provision of social justice
4.3 Most original aspects lie in its proposals for political reforms, designed to protect the individual and preserve independence of minority groups
4.3.1 decentralisation of power to regional and local governments
4.3.2 increasing use of referendums
4.3.3 promoting freedom of information
4.4 seen as a reaction against the growth of both state power and the undesirable consequences of the free market
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