Kinetic Model of Matter

J Y Wong
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

(Physics) Mind Map on Kinetic Model of Matter, created by J Y Wong on 05/03/2014.

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J Y Wong
Created by J Y Wong over 5 years ago
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Kinetic Model of Matter
1 all matter is made of tiny particles in motion
2 Brownian motion
2.1 refers to irregular motion of smoke in air or pollen in water
2.2 Einstein explanation for the motion as caused by bombardment of air particles.
2.2.1 Bigger visible particles are under continuous bombardment by smaller invisible particles and are kept in continuous random motion
3 Kinetic model of matter
3.1 kinetic ==> moving
3.2 States that all matter is made of tiny particles in continuous motion
3.3 Comparing different states of matter
3.3.1 Solid
3.3.1.1 Physical properties: Incompressible, fixed shape and volume
3.3.1.1.1 Molecules are packed closely
3.3.1.1.1.1 Strong intermolecular force
3.3.1.1.1.1.1 Motion of particles: Vibrate about fixed positions
3.3.2 Liquid
3.3.2.1 Incompressible, fixed volume, takes shape of vessel
3.3.2.1.1 Packed closely
3.3.2.1.1.1 Some attractive forces
3.3.2.1.1.1.1 Free to move within vessel
3.3.3 Gas
3.3.3.1 Compressible, no fixed shape or volume
3.3.3.1.1 Far apart
3.3.3.1.1.1 Little attractive forces
3.3.3.1.1.1.1 Free to move at high speeds
3.3.4 Temperature of matter is related to kinetic enegy possessed by the particles
3.3.4.1 In ascending order, solids, liquids, gases
3.3.4.1.1 Note: phase change is related to potential energy
3.3.5 In general, matter in solid state have the least spacing, followed by liquid and gas.
3.3.5.1 Exception: Water has a greater spacing in solid than in liquid state, minimum spacing at 4 degree celcius
4 Gas Laws
4.1 Boyle's
4.1.1 p is inversely proportionate to V, p1V1=p2V2
4.1.1.1 Explained using KMM: For gas compressed slowly (same temperature), the frequency of the gas particles bouncing off the surface of the vessel increases due to reduced volume, causing an increase in pressure in gas
4.1.2 T is the constant
4.2 Charles's
4.2.1 V is proportionate to T
4.2.1.1 For gas in an insulated (temperature allowed to increase) vessel with a frictionless (same pressure) piston, temperature increase results in the average speed of particles to increase, which will increase force of collision on the piston, pushing the piston outwards until gas pressure is the smae as pressure in the surroundings.
4.2.2 p is the constant
4.3 Gay-Lussac's
4.3.1 p is proportionate to T
4.3.1.1 For gas kept in an insulated vessel (same volume) temperature increase results in the average speed of particles to increase. This in turn increases both the frequency of the gas particles bouncing off the surface, and the force of collisions, causing an increase in pressure of gas.
4.3.2 V is the constant
5 Summary
5.1 Brownian motion demonstrates moving nature of gas/liquid particles.
5.2 Kinetic model: particles are in constant motion, temperature of substance is related to motion of particles
5.3 Gas laws: relationship between p, V and T

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