Psychology A-level: Addiction


Mind Map on Psychology A-level: Addiction, created by olivia6557 on 05/05/2014.
Mind Map by olivia6557, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by olivia6557 about 9 years ago

Resource summary

Psychology A-level: Addiction
  1. Biological Approach
    1. Gambling
      1. Initiation: role of genetics- pathological gambling runs in families
        1. Shah- twin study found evidence of genetic transmission
        2. Maintenance: gambling associated with under active pituitary adrenal response.
          1. Paris- gamblers showed no cortisol response to stimulation videos
          2. Relapse: poor tolerance to boredom leads to gambling
          3. Smoking
            1. Initiation: role of genetics- heritability of smoking between 40-80%
              1. Maintenance: effect of nicotine
                1. Vink- nicotine dependence influenced 75% by genetics
                2. Relapse: ability to quit is subject to genetic influence
                  1. Xian- 54% of risk for relapse attributed to genetics
              2. Cognitive Approach
                1. Smoking
                  1. Initiation: expectancy theory
                    1. Brandon- behaviour becomes addiction because of expectancies about its costs and benefits
                    2. Maintenance: automatic processing
                      1. Brandon- activity influenced more by unconcious expectancies, explaining the lack of control
                      2. Relapse: assessing costs and benefits
                        1. affects readiness to quit and liklihood of relapse
                      3. Gambling
                        1. Initiation: self medication
                          1. Gelkopf- people intentionally use different forms of gambling as its percieved to help particular problem
                          2. Maintenance: cognitive distortions and irrational beliefs
                            1. believing random events are influenced by recent events
                            2. Relapse: recall bias
                              1. remember and overestimate wins and forget and rationalise losses
                          3. Learning Approach
                            1. Gambling
                              1. Initiation: operant conditioning
                                1. any behaviour producing consequence that's found rewarding becomes more frequent
                                  1. Physiological, psychological and social rewards
                                2. Maintenance:intermittent reinforcement
                                  1. become used to long periods with no reward but is reinforced by occasional payout
                                  2. Relapse: conditioned cues
                                    1. associate stimuli to gambling, they act as triggers as they increase arousal
                                  3. Smoking
                                    1. Initiation: availability of role models
                                      1. young people begin smoking as consequence of social models
                                      2. Maintenance: conditioning
                                        1. repetition of smoking leads to strong conditioned association between sensory and reinforcing effects
                                        2. Relapse: conditioned cues
                                          1. craving increases when conditioned stimulus presented to smoker
                                      3. Risk factors
                                        1. Stress
                                          1. Everyday stress- addiction as coping with daily hassels
                                            1. Traumatic stress- those exposed to severe stress are more vaulnerable to addiction
                                            2. Peers
                                              1. SLT- learnt through observation and modelling
                                                1. Social identity theory- group members adopt norms that are central to social identity of group
                                                2. Personality
                                                  1. Eysenck- extrovert/introvert, neuroticism and psychoticism
                                                    1. Cloniger- predisposed towards addiction if: novelty seeker, harm avoidance and reward dependance
                                                  2. Media influences
                                                    1. Film research
                                                      1. Sulkunen- analysed films- drug fims showed enjoyment of effects, contrasting dullness of real life and to alleviate a problem
                                                        1. Waylen- teenagers watching films showing actors smoking- more likely to start themselves
                                                        2. Role of media in changing addictions
                                                          1. Psst.. guide to alcohol- didn't show change in attitude or behaviour
                                                            1. Drink less? DIY- self-help intervention, successful in achieving low risk
                                                          2. Theory of planned Behaviour
                                                            1. Azjan (1989)
                                                              1. Behavioural attitude
                                                                1. product of persons personal views, formed on beliefs about consequences
                                                                2. Subjective norms
                                                                  1. Product of social influence, perceptions of significant others
                                                                  2. Percieved behavioural control
                                                                    1. acts on intention or behaviour itself
                                                                  3. Model for addiction breakdown
                                                                    1. Changing behavioural attitude 'Above the influence
                                                                      1. successful because said its inconsistant with being autonomous and achieving aspirations
                                                                      2. Changing subjective norms
                                                                        1. Gave adolescents actual data to show its not normal
                                                                    2. Types of intervention
                                                                      1. Biological
                                                                        1. Methadone- synthetic drug used for heroine addiction, mimics effects but less addictive
                                                                          1. Gamblers treated with SSRIs to increase serotonin
                                                                          2. Psychological
                                                                            1. Reinforcement- giving rewards for not engaging in behaviour
                                                                              1. CBT- changing the way they think
                                                                              2. Public Health
                                                                                1. Quitline services- increased odds of quitting by 50%
                                                                                  1. Smoking Ban
                                                                                    1. Prevention of youth gambling
                                                                                      1. applies denormalisation, protection, prevention and harm reduction principles
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