Surgery and Anatomy Ancient World c10,000 BC - c500 AD

Louise Whitton
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Ancient World c10,000 BC - c500 AD

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Louise Whitton
Created by Louise Whitton over 2 years ago
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Surgery and Anatomy Ancient World c10,000 BC - c500 AD
1 Prehistoric
1.1 Stitch up wounds
1.2 Set broken bones by encasing them in mud
1.3 Trephining
1.4 Basic knowledge of bone structure from burial rituals
1.4.1 Religion
2 Ancient Egypt
2.1 Knowledge of the main bones and organs from mummification
2.1.1 Religion
2.2 Did not know what each part did - the parts were not studied as it was a religious ritual
2.2.1 Religion
2.3 Simple, external surgery
2.3.1 Reset dislocated joints
2.3.2 Mend broken bones
2.3.3 Were excellent at bandaging
2.3.4 Used herbal anaesthetics
2.3.5 Stronger, sharper bronze surgical equipment
2.3.5.1 improved metal-working skills by developing the making of weapons etc
2.3.5.1.1 War
3 Ancient Greece
3.1 Greek doctors in Alexandria and Egypt started to dissect bodies as philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato decided that the body was not needed in the afterlife
3.1.1 Attitude of enquiry
3.1.2 Individuals
3.2 Herophilus discovered that it was the brain, not the heart that controls the movement of limbs through vivisection
3.2.1 Attitude of enquiry
3.2.2 Individuals
3.3 Erasistratus discovered that blood moved through the veins
3.3.1 Attitude of enquiry
3.3.2 Individuals
3.4 Simple external surgery
3.4.1 Setting broken and dislocated bones
3.4.1.1 War
3.4.2 Herbal antispectics
3.4.2.1 Opium, alcohol and wine to stop infection
3.5 'Praiseworthy pus'
3.5.1 believd pus carried away poisoned blood that caused infection
3.5.1.1 covered in ointment and bandages to create pus
4 Roman Empire
4.1 It was forbidden to dissect humans so anatomists, such as Galen, had to dissect animals to learn about the human body
4.1.1 This lead to Galen making mistakes like thinking that the human jaw-bone was made up of two bones, like a dog's.
4.1.2 Religion
4.2 Galen's books show a good knowledge of bone structure. He also studied the lungs, the muscles, the heart and blood and the nervous system
4.2.1 Individuals
4.2.2 Discovers that the brain and not the heart controls the body
4.3 Simple external surgery
4.3.1 Removing polyps up the nose
4.3.2 Removing goitres from the neck
4.4 New surgical and midwifery instruments were developed
4.5 The Caesarean section was developed
4.6 Herbal antiseoptics

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