Takahashi (1990): Cross-cultural variations

moeingthelawn
Mind Map by , created over 5 years ago

A-Levels Psychology A-Level AQA A (Unit 1 Attachment and early social development) Mind Map on Takahashi (1990): Cross-cultural variations, created by moeingthelawn on 05/10/2014.

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moeingthelawn
Created by moeingthelawn over 5 years ago
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Takahashi (1990): Cross-cultural variations
1 AIMS
1.1 To consider whether it is appropriate to use the Strange Situation with Japanese children
1.2 Is the Strange Situation a valid procedure for cultures other than the original one?
2 PROCEDURES
2.1 60 middle-class Japanese infants and their mothers
2.2 All infants were raised at home
3 FINDINGS
3.1 68% of infants securely attached
3.2 32% resistant-insecure
3.3 No infants were avoidant-insecure
3.4 Japanese infants much more disturbed when left alone
3.4.1 'infant alone' step stopped for 90% of PPs due to extreme distress experienced by infants
4 CONCLUSIONS
4.1 There are cross-cultural variations in infants' response to separation
4.1.1 Japanese infants experience much less separation
4.1.1.1 Strange Situation was more than mildly stressful for Japanese infants than American infants
4.2 Total lack of avoidant-insecure behaviour may be due to cultural terms
4.2.1 Japanese children are taught that such behaviour is impolite and are actively discourages from such behaviour
4.3 Strange Situation may not be a valid form of assessment of attachment for some cultures
5 EVALUATION
5.1 Study had limited sample of only middle-class, home-reared infants
5.1.1 Cannot generalize findings to all Japanese infants
5.2 Demonstrates that there are important cultural and subcultural differences in attachment
5.3 Ethical issues
5.3.1 Infants experienced extreme distress, which was not the intention of the study
5.3.1.1 Ethical guideline: PPs must be protected from psychological harm as much as possible
5.3.1.1.1 Takahashi did stop observations when infants became too distressed
5.3.1.1.1.1 However, the whole study itself was not stopped even if extreme distress was very likely to happen

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