relationship between religion and politics

Mind Map by sophie_pollard, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by sophie_pollard almost 6 years ago


Interaction between religion and politics in India

Resource summary

relationship between religion and politics
1 at the forefront of Indian nationalism
1.1 it was the very foundations of nationalism that necessitated such a strong relationship
1.1.1 because Indian nationalism derived from not one but multiple political interests and these division were almost unanimously on account fo religious ideologies
1.2 caused suspicion and fear between religious communities. each kept protectionism at the forefront of their interests- prevent the other gaining more at their own expense in the independence movement
1.3 Hindu-Muslim relations dominated
2 arrival of British brought it to the forefront
2.1 Divide and Rule
2.1.1 KW Jones: Raj knew exactly how to utilise them in order to ensure their own stability as the colonising government
2.1.2 succesfull
2.2 afforded priviliges disproportionately amongst religious communities, mostly the islamic groups. fuelling Hindu insecurities about the aims of the Muslims in India. Hindered any efforts to secure a self autonomous India - required unity between religious communities
3 Individuals identified their social, economic or political position in comparison to their peers on the basis of religion
4 Masslos: narrative of increasing Muslim impoverishment under British colonialism, in favour of Hindu communities due to a variety of social and economic factors
5 religion= driving factor behind circumstances that people operate under and entrance into political arena
6 Hindu and Muslim rivalry= cyclical nature= political actions of one stimulated the other
6.1 local level politics: developed so extensively it became a major issue- one which cannot be ignored when considering Indian Nationalism- communalism
6.1.1 multitude of new political organisations in the latter half of the 19th Century, that were established largely on the foundation of an insecurity based on rival religious commuities
7 Hindu communal movements:
7.1 arrival of colonists and their subsequent introduction of modernised institutions instilled a sense of backwardness and decline amongst the indigenous
7.1.1 too overcome this and challenge the Westernisers, the intellectual classes responded by adapting thei hindu customs 'with ideological reinterpretation of the past.'
7.2 Dayanandas Arya Samaj: attempted to reform Hinduism so that it could balance both traditional hindu principles and customs with western modernisation which would allow it to rival the british colonists
7.2.1 intoduction of Shuddhi to mirror conversion practices of Christianity which were being deployed by colonial missionaries to reduce hindu pop. numbers,
7.2.2 particularly receptive in provinces where hindus were predominantly a minority Jones: as a minority group the hindu communities were on the defence, felt threatened by muslim dominance, and resulted in increased political activity to overcome this
7.3 ethnic pride had a key impact on the hindu politics
7.3.1 hindu communities no longer felt lesser than the colonialists- why should they submit to their rule
7.4 not just movements, hindu practices were utilised in different ways.
7.4.1 sati in some communities. clear defiance of british laws, refusal of witnesses to cooperate, withdrawak of tacit consent of British rule customs used to reject british rule
7.5 movements did not just increase tensions with colonial government, but also with other religious communites
8 Muslims:
8.1 reacted. e.g. set up of INC in 1885, Muslim League created in 1906 to counterwight the movement
8.2 Masselos: contrary to popular perceptions, Muslim community was similarly fragmented as Hindu was, predominantly on account of Sunni-Shi'a split. Issue of participation in the Indian Nationalist movement is rather less simple. further way in which religion was key to nationalism
8.3 some muslims rejected nationalism completely feared Hindu dominance more than British
8.4 Sunnis: loyalty to the caliphate, britains heavy involvement in the dismantling of the Ottoman Empire following the firs world war. mobolised a large number of mulsims= kaliphat movement- sought protection of the caliph
9 only unifying power?
10 duration of the Indian natioanlist movement saw religion retain its prominence amongst committed groups
11 Peter van de veer: Indian dreams of the nation always take religion on as one of the main aspects of national identity.
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