Yr9 Biology - Diet & Exercise (GCSE AQA B1.1.1)

T Mason
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GCSE Science (Biology) Mind Map on Yr9 Biology - Diet & Exercise (GCSE AQA B1.1.1), created by T Mason on 05/15/2014.

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T Mason
Created by T Mason over 5 years ago
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Yr9 Biology - Diet & Exercise (GCSE AQA B1.1.1)
1 A healthy diet contains the right balance of different foods you need and the right amount of energy
1.1 Carbohydrates
1.1.1 gives you energy and build cells
1.1.2 sugary + starchy food - potatoes, rice, cereals, pasta, bread, some fruit and veg
1.2 Fats
1.2.1 provide energy and help in building cell membranes
1.2.2 dairy, red meats, some poultry and fish
1.3 Minerals
1.3.1 bodily functions
1.3.2 iron is good for the blood as its a component a substance that carries oxygen around the body
1.3.3 calcium is good for improving the strength of your bones
1.3.4 fresh fruits, veg
1.4 Vitamins
1.4.1 good for keeping body healthy - skin, bones and teeth
1.4.2 vitamin c helps to make collagen which heals wounds, supports blood vessel walls and forms a base for teeth and bones
1.4.3 dairy products, fresh fruit, veg
1.5 Proteins
1.5.1 help body grow, repair itself, release energy and build cells
1.5.2 meats, poultry, fish, dairy, eggs, beans
1.6 Fibre
1.6.1 helps you digest food and provides bulk to move food along you tract
1.6.2 cereals, fruit, bread, veg
1.7 Water
1.7.1 essential for most chemical reactions, keeps body temp. normal, lubricates and cushions joints, protects spinal cord and sensitive tissue and gets rid of waste through urination, perspiration and bowel movements
1.8 MALNOURISHED = not balanced diet
1.8.1 leads to being underweight or overweight
1.8.2 overweight - leads to Type 2 diabetes, heart disease, arthritis, high blood pressure, cancers
1.8.3 underweight - leads to organ failure, lack of resistance to infection, deficiency disease, irregular periods
2 Energy Content
2.1 Energy input > Energy output = gain weight (positive energy + additional energy stored)
2.2 Energy input < Energy output = lose weight (negative energy + used to meet demand)
2.3 Energy increase the amount of energy used by the body
2.4 CALORIES (kcal) = indicator of energy content of food
2.5 Measure energy in kilo/joules (k/j)
2.6 METABOLIC RATE = rate of chemical reactions in cells
2.6.1 affected (if high) by amount of exercise (very active), size(bigger=more cells=more cell reactions), environment (climate --> altitude=more sweat), genetics, fitness levels, gender (males higher because % muscle tissue to fat is higher), overweight, age (higher if young)
2.7 CHOLESTEROL = an insoluble substance which we make in our liver from saturated fats (or eggs, meat and dairy) that gets carried around the body in our blood
2.7.1 Needed in body for cell membranes, steroid hormones (testosterone), some growth hormones, bile salts
2.7.2 When cholesterol is encased in proteins to be transported around the body, it is called lipoproteins (soluble)
2.7.2.1 LDLs = low-density lipoproteins, known as 'bad' cholesterol, raised levels increase risk of heart problems
2.7.2.1.1 takes cholesterol around the body in the blood to cells from liver --> creates build up on lining of arteries
2.7.2.1.2 Factors that increase LDL levels
2.7.2.1.2.1 Age - over 50s
2.7.2.1.2.2 Gender - Male
2.7.2.1.2.3 Smokers
2.7.2.1.2.4 Type 2 diabetics
2.7.2.1.2.5 Overweight/Obesity
2.7.2.1.2.6 Genetic predisposition - family history of heart disease
2.7.2.1.3 Lowering LDL levels
2.7.2.1.3.1 lower intake of saturated fats --> causes accumulation of LDL
2.7.2.1.3.2 increase intake of monounsaturated fats --> lowers cholesterol a little
2.7.2.1.3.3 increase intake of polyunsaturated fats --> lowers cholesterol a lot
2.7.2.2 HDLs = high-density lipoproteins, known as 'good' cholesterol, reduces risk of heart disease
2.7.2.2.1 takes excess cholesterol back to the liver --> reduces build up on lining of arteries
2.7.3 Avoid increasing risk of CardioVascular Disease by maintaining low levels of LDLs and high levels of HDLs
2.7.4 SATURATED FATS increase blood cholesterol levels and are in meat, butter and cheese
2.7.5 POLY-UNSATURATED FATS even better at reducing cholesterol levels and balancing HDL and LDL levels than mono-unsaturates. Found in corn oil, sunflower oil, margarines and oily fish
2.7.6 MONO-UNSATURATED FATS have two useful effects: reduces overall blood cholesterol levels and improves HDL and LDL balance. Found in olives, olive oil, peanuts and margarines

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