Yr9 Biology - Interdependence & Adaptation (GCSE AQA B1.4)

T Mason
Mind Map by T Mason, updated more than 1 year ago
T Mason
Created by T Mason almost 6 years ago
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GCSE Science (Biology) Mind Map on Yr9 Biology - Interdependence & Adaptation (GCSE AQA B1.4), created by T Mason on 05/15/2014.

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Yr9 Biology - Interdependence & Adaptation (GCSE AQA B1.4)
1 Environmental change
1.1 Changes in the environment affect the distribution of living organisms
1.2 Environmental changes can be measured using non-living indicators such as oxygen levels, temperature and rainfall
1.3 Animals and plants are subjected to environmental changes. Such changes may be caused by living or non-living factors such as change in a competitor, or in the average temperature or rainfall
1.4 Living organisms can be used as indicators of pollution:
1.4.1 Lichens can be used as air pollution indicators, particularly of the concentration of sulphur dioxide in the atmosphere
1.4.1.1 lichens found in areas with low levels of sulphur dioxide in the air
1.4.2 invertebrate animals can be used as water pollution indicators and are used as indicators of the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water
2 Adaptations
2.1 To survive and reproduce, organisms require a supply of materials from their surroundings and from the other living organisms there
2.2 Plants often compete with each other for light and space, and for water and nutrients from the soil
2.3 Animals often compete with each other for food, mates and territory
2.4 Organisms, incl. microorganisms have features (adaptations) that enable them to survive in the conditions in which the normally live
2.5 Some organisms live in environments that are very extreme. Extremophiles may be tolerant to high levels of salt, high temperatures or high pressures
2.6 Animals and plants may be adapted to cope with specific features of their environment, eg thorns, poisons and warning colours to deter predators
2.7 Animals and plants may be adapted for survival in the conditions where they normally live, eg deserts, the Arctic
2.7.1 Animals may be adapted for survival in dry and arctic environments by means of:
2.7.1.1 changes to surface area
2.7.1.2 thickness of insulating coat
2.7.1.3 amount of body fat
2.7.1.4 camouflage
2.7.2 Plants may be adapted to survive in dry environments by means of:
2.7.2.1 changes to surface area, particularly of the leaves
2.7.2.2 water-storage tissues
2.7.2.3 extensive root systems
2.8 ADAPTATION - a feature or characteristic that allows a living thing to live successfully in its habitat
3 Competition - the rivalry between members of
3.1 the same species (INTRASPECIFIC), [lion --> lion / humans --> humans], for a resource in limited supply that they both need
3.2 competition in different species (INTERSPECIFIC), [lions --> hyeena, cheetahs, tigers], for a resource in limited supply that they both need
3.3 Reduction of other types of competition
3.3.1 mating rituals
3.3.2 courtship displays
3.3.3 features that allow warning fights for dominance
4 Link Between ADAPTATION & COMPETITION
4.1 If an organism is well adapted to the environment it lives in, it will compete well for limited resources and therefore is more likely to survive and reproduce
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